The North Cape American Lobster Restoration Project was an effort to restore the Southern New England lobster population following injuries caused by the North Cape oil spill. In January of 1996 the tank barge, North Cape, struck ground off the coast of Rhode Island spilling approximately 828,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil into Block Island Sound. The spill caused more than 2.9 million lobsters to wash ashore and the natural resources damage assessment estimated a total of 9 million lobsters were killed from the toxic effects of the oil. A species-specific restoration plan was developed, aimed at increasing local lobster egg production and recruitment. The plan accounted for sex ratio, size distribution, survivorship between life stages, delay between the kill and implementation of the restoration project and time required for growth and maturation of lobsters lost as a result of the spill.
The strategy called for 1.248 million legal-size female lobsters to be v-notched and released. “V-notching” refers to the practice of cutting a v-shaped notch in a lobster’s tail to mark the animal for conservation (Attachment 2). Once marked, these lobsters were protected from harvest until the v-notch was no longer present due to molting. Extending the reproductive lives of the notched females allowed an estimated 17.2 billion eggs to be produced which are expected to yield 9 million lobsters replacing those lost by the spill.
During 2000, the first year of the project, approximately 300,000 adult female lobsters were purchased from dealers, v-notched and released from a research vessel within a ten-mile radius of Point Judith, Rhode Island. This method of restoration was problematic with non-compliance issues and excessive recapture rates of v-notched lobsters within the restoration area. To correct for these problems a new approach was adopted the following year. With this new method lobster fishermen, accompanied by trained observers, were paid to capture, v-notch, and release female lobsters. These activities were conducted as far as 60 miles offshore and 30 miles east towards Martha’s Vineyard (Attachment 2). This expansion of the v-notching area improved lobster restoration efforts by allowing more fishermen to participate in the program and more widely dispersing the marked lobsters. From 2001 to 2005 the number of female lobsters notched and returned to the ocean each year was approximately 38,000; 212,000; 123,000; 214,000; and 412,000 respectively. In 2006, close to 43,000 female lobsters were notched, with the 1.248 millionth notched by early summer. Data from restoration monitoring has indicated that the lobster population increased 6 percent each month while restoration activities were being conducted.
Block Island Sound, United States, 41.20833890000001, -71.8096941
Country or Territory:
United States of America
Coral Reef, Seagrass & Shellfish Beds, Estuaries, Marshes & Mangroves, Oceanic
Area being restored:
8961 square kilometers
Primary Causes of DegradationContamination (biological, chemical, physical or radiological)
On January 19, 1996, during a severe winter storm, the tank barge North Cape, carrying 94,000 barrels (3.9 million gallons) of two blends of No. 2 home heating oil, struck ground off Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island and began to leak oil into the surrounding water. Winds reaching 50 knots formed large, breaking waves that dispersed the oil throughout the water column and into contact with bottom sediments resulting in high concentrations of toxic components (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in the shallow waters near shore (French McCay, 2003). A second winter storm five days later brought the oil back into the sensitive intertidal zone, resulting in substantial mortality of marine organisms (Gibson et al., 1997). In total, an estimated 828,000 gallons of the fuel oil were released into the coastal and offshore environments before the North Cape was refloated and moved to Newport, Rhode Island on Friday, January 26, one week after grounding.
Natural resource trustees (See Stakeholder Involvement, below) reviewed the results of over 30 studies of potential resource injuries cause by the spill and consulted with a variety of experts in relevant scientific and technical disciplines. Based on this work, the trustees believed that the spill caused significant injuries to biota in the offshore and salt pond environments and to a variety of birds. While the effect of the oil spill was extensive, this case study is focused on the American lobster mortality and subsequent population restoration.
Data were collected to estimate total lobster losses and the expected time for natural recovery. The studies were designed to evaluate and quantify lobster losses resulting from the acute toxicological effects (immediate mortality) of the spill, delayed mortality and factors affecting the natural recovery of the local lobster population, including migration, larval abundance and egg production.
To estimate the total number of lobsters stranded on the beaches in the spill impact area, transects were set up by Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RIDEM) on beaches from Point Judith to Charlestown Beach. Sample quadrats along those transects were counted daily, classifying lobsters by sex and size. The areas sampled were swept so that lobsters coming ashore on subsequent days could be identified. The statistical analysis of the data provided an estimate of cumulative (summing daily counts up to February 2 when new strandings had tapered off to negligible levels) lobster abundance on the beach in the affected area. Corrections were made for sampling biases, including lack of observations on the smallest (young-of-the-year) lobsters. Details are provided in Gibson et al. (1997).
Based on this analysis, the trustees estimated that 2.92 million lobsters killed by the spill washed up on the beach (Gibson et al. 1997). The majority of these lobsters (by number) were less than 40 millimeters in carapace length, although about 6,000 legal size lobsters (greater than 82.6 millimeters or 3.25 inches carapace length) were included in the strandings. This number is a lower bound estimate of mortality, as it is extremely unlikely that all lobsters killed by the spill washed ashore.
Total lobster mortality was estimated by diver surveys of lobster abundances performed directly in their habitat (Cobb et al. 1999). The sampling stations were classified as impact (nearest the site of the spill), control (clearly unaffected by oil), and transitional (between control and impact areas) based on reported records of beach strandings of lobsters and results of model simulations of the trajectory of the oil in the sediments.
Comparison of lobster densities in impact and reference areas provided estimates of acute mortality that included both immediate and delayed impacts. During the spring, summer and fall of 1996, diver surveys were made at 21 stations in spill impact and reference lobster habitat (Cobb and Clancy 1998, Cobb et al. 1999). Historical survey data were available from 1991 to 1995 at six sites, three of which were included in the reference sites sampled in 1996. The diver surveys were of two types: airlift samples, used to count the smallest lobsters (less than 60 millimeters carapace length); and visual counts, used for larger (greater than 20 millimeters carapace length) lobsters. Abundance by size class was derived from these data for each sample station. Abundances were interpolated to all affected habitat areas, and estimates were made of total lobsters missing from the affected area.
Based on these data, the trustees estimated that approximately 9.0 million lobsters were killed by the spill. Roughly 82 percent of the lobsters were in their first or second year of life. Legal size lobsters, which are five or more years old, accounted for about 15,300 (0.52%) of the killed lobsters (French 1999). Natural recovery time was estimated to be four to five years for the lobster population to return to baseline levels. This estimate reflected the fact that juvenile lobsters grow to legal size within four to five years after which most are quickly caught by lobstermen.
Reference Ecosystem Description
The offshore waters of Block Island Sound support a diversity of fish species including cod, cunner, flounder, skates, tautog and herring. Marine mammals are represented in the Block Island ecosystem by harbor seal communities on Point Judith, Newton Rock and possibly other remote rocky areas. Lobsters, surf clams, starfish, and crabs dominate the marine benthic community. Mussels, sea urchins and sea cucumbers also are resident benthic megafauna. These species are allied with an abundant and diverse benthic microfauna population in the offshore environment.
Moonstone Beach, the site of the grounding, is part of the Trustom Pond National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), a highly productive salt pond and wetland system. Cordgrasses (Spartina spp) dominate the salt marsh environment in the salt ponds of Rhode Island, but are accompanied by other plant species such as seaside gerardia and salt marsh bulrush (NAWMP 1998). The marsh vegetation plays an essential role in the coastal ecosystem by generating primary production, trapping sediment, fixing nitrogen and providing habitat for aquatic species.
The salt ponds serve as essential spawning, nursery and growth areas for coastal fish, shellfish, and benthic species (Braczenski et al. 1979, Crawford and Carey 1985, Ganz et al. 1992, Crawford 1990). Other commercially and recreationally important species include striped bass, bluefish, quahogs, oysters and lobsters. Like most estuaries, the ponds are also important links between terrestrial and marine environments, converting terrestrial nutrients into marine biological production; in the shallow, well-lit waters of the salt ponds, benthic activity is an important component of this process (Nixon 1982, Nowicki and Nixon 1985). Silversides, striped killifish, mummichogs, sheepshead minnows, polychaetes and amphipods are important components of the complex food web on the salt ponds.
Rhode Island waters offer considerable economic resources. The coastline along Block Island Sound harbors an extensive network of town and state beaches that supports a large travel and tourism industry. Recreational diving and charter boat fishing also contribute to the local economy. Lobsters, quahogs and winter flounder comprise a sizable portion of the annual fish and shellfish catch. These species are harvested extensively in the Block Island Sound and associated salt pond communities (Olsen and Seavey 1983).
The lobster resource is of particular importance because it supports the most valuable commercial fishery of the Northeast Unites States (ASMFC 2000). Southern New England (Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Maryland) is the second largest fishery, and accounted for 21percent of the total US landings between 1981 and 2003 (ASMFC, 2006). An increase in landings began in the 1980’s and continued to record highs from 1997 to 1999 (ASMFC, 2006). Landings subsequently declined for the next six years with record low landings in 2003 comprising only 12 percent of the total US catch (ASMFC, 2006).
The goal of the v-notching project was to replace the estimated 9 million lobsters that were killed by the North Cape oil spill through protection of female inshore, Southern New England lobsters. Delaying the harvest of these females was expected to increase egg production leading to increased future juvenile and adult lobster populations. The restoration activities were designed to make the environment and public whole for injuries to natural resources and service losses resulting from the spill. The trustees determined these restoration actions would be required to return the ecosystem to baseline conditions as the resources were not expected to recover in a reasonable amount of time without human intervention. These restoration actions further compensated for resource and service losses for the time between the oil spill and the anticipated return to baseline.
The project does not have a monitoring plan.
Under the provisions/authority of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RIDEM), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI; represented by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS) were designated as natural resource trustees and had the responsibility to restore, rehabilitate, replace, or acquire the equivalent of natural resources injured as a result of the North Cape oil spill.
The trustees, on behalf of the public, determined the natural resource injuries, planned for appropriate restoration projects, prepared the draft and final restoration plans and implemented and oversaw restoration activities. Restoration plans were reviewed by experts from industry, restoration scientists, and interested members of the public. Decisions guiding restoration implementation and monitoring were developed as a part of a settlement agreement between resource managers and involved parties. Final authority to make determinations regarding injury and restoration rested solely with the trustees.
Description of Project Activities:
Research and Planning. To appropriately scale this project, it was first necessary to determine the number of eggs needed to produce a size distribution of lobsters equivalent to those lost due to the spill. Trustee analyses indicated that the 9 million lobsters killed were produced from approximately 17.2 billion eggs (French 1999, Gibson 1998). This estimate was developed using available information on lobster mortality rates, growth rates, sexual maturation and fecundity-size relationships in female lobsters. Lobster population demographics are considered relatively stable over time (i.e., "in equilibrium"); it was expected that replacement of 17.2 billion eggs would eventually produce a similar age and size distribution of the lost lobsters. The next step in the scaling analysis involved estimation of the number of adult females needed to produce the 17.2 billion eggs. This estimate relied on projections of the length of time lobsters will be protected by the v-notch (v-notches only last between one to two molts), program compliance rates and handling loss. With regard to the likely duration of V-notch protection, the trustees assumed two years. This assumption reflected certain identification of the v-notch after one molt and partial recognition after two molts, and an average intermolt period of approximately 1.6 years (Gibson 1998). Program non-compliance losses were expected to be 50 percent, which is an average over the proposed five-year notching period. Rhode Island lobstermen were unaccustomed to considering the presence of v-notched lobsters in their harvest, and adaptation to the new program required education, effort, and time. Therefore, the trustees estimated that 50 percent of restocked lobsters would be harvested inadvertently because of this learning process. Based on the egg equivalence calculation and the program assumptions described above, the trustees estimated that v-notching 0.97 million adult females would be necessary to meet restoration objectives. The preceding analysis did not account for the lag between the date of injury and restoration. Female lobsters were reintroduced between four and ten years after the spill and there was a lag before the restocked females produced eggs, that matured to the sizes of the lobsters killed by the spill. To account for these timing differences, the required number of lobsters was increased by three percent per year for the appropriate number of lag years, resulting in a total of 1.26 million v-notched female lobsters, which were expected to produce 23 billion eggs. These discounting calculations are described in more detail in French (1999). In the final step of the scaling calculations, the trustees slightly reduce the 1.26 million female lobster total to account for adult lobsters already introduced into the environment by the responsible party. By prior agreement with the responsible party, the trustees allowed restoration "credit" for lobsters purchased by the responsible party immediately after the spill, tested, and returned to the environment after meeting all state and federal standards. Trustee records indicate that approximately 12,300 lobsters were purchased by the responsible party for this purpose. Therefore, the trustees reduced the v-notching requirement from 1.26 million to 1.248 million female lobsters from the inshore, Southern New England population. Implementation In order to protect the females and make the v-notch effective, regulations were passed making it illegal to harvest a v-notched lobster. To be legally protected, the v-notch was required to be 1/4 inch in depth, without any setal hairs (Gibson and Angell 2006). Rhode Island passed the regulation in 1998, and Massachusetts, Connecticut and New York followed shortly thereafter. During the first year of the project, approximately 300,000 female lobsters were purchased from dealers, v-notched and released from a research vessel within a ten-mile radius of Point Judith, Rhode Island (For a detailed description of these activities see Attachment 1). It was soon discovered that, among other complications, the recapture rate of v-notched lobsters within the restoration area was too high; there were too many marked lobsters in too small of an area. To correct for this problem a new approach was adopted the following year using trained observers and commercial fishermen. With this new method, trained observers were assigned to lobster boats to accompany fishermen on their trips. As female lobsters were captured, they were inspected to determine eligibility. Eligible lobsters had to be legal size, could not be soft shells, could not have visible signs of shell disease, could not be carrying eggs and could not be missing both claws (double culls), (single culls could only constitute 15% of the catch). If deemed eligible, the lobster was v-notched and released at their capture location. V-notching took place 32 to 38 weeks of the year, from April to December when lobstermen typically fish. Eighty vessels and ninety-one observers were used for a total of over 9000 trips. The lobstermen participating in the program were paid for each released lobster. These activities were conducted as far as 60 miles offshore and 30 miles east towards Martha's Vineyard. This expansion of the v-notching area improved lobster restoration efforts by allowing more fishermen to participate in the program and more widely dispersing the marked lobsters. The observers recorded information on new and recaptured v-notched lobsters including whether or not the recaptures were carrying eggs. A tagging project was also conducted in conjunction with the v-notch program to gather additional data on v-notched lobsters and allow for ancillary data analysis and monitoring of the restoration program. Over 35,000 lobsters were equipped with individual tags from 2003 to 2006. The initial location and date of capture were recorded for all tagged lobsters. Upon recapture, the date, location, size, shell condition, and presence or absence of eggs was recorded. Results From 2001 to 2005 the number of lobsters notched and returned to the ocean each year was approximately 38,000; 212,000; 123,000; 214,000; and 412,000 respectively. In 2006, close to 43,000 lobsters were notched, and the 1.248 millionth lobster was notched by early summer. Data collected by the on board observers confirmed that the target number of v-notches and intended egg production were achieved. Analysis indicated that the lobster population increased six percent each month during the restoration program (Stokesbury and Bigelow, 2009). This suggests that the methods employed in the restoration program were effective at increasing lobster abundance which will lead to increased egg production. The tagging data offered scientists and marine managers valuable information regarding migration patterns and survival which will aid in lobster management and help to ensure a strong lobster fishery in the future. A tank study was conducted to evaluate the effects of v-notching on the lobsters and v-notch retention time. Results of the tank study indicated that v-notching did not increase mortality or increase the incidence of disease (B. DeAngelis, unpublished data). However, it was determined that v-notch retention time may be shorter than previously thought. These results were in agreement with studies conducted by Castro et al.(2003) evaluating v-notch retention. As a result of these studies, in 2008, fisheries regulations were changed, reducing the size of a protected v-notch from 1/4 inch to 1/8 inch, regardless of setal hair presence in the notch. This change ultimately increased the protection time of a notched lobster for a minimum of one additional molt.
Ecological Outcomes Achieved
Eliminate existing threats to the ecosystem:
The v-notching program was successful at increasing the lobster population by six percent each month during the restoration (Stokesbury and Bigelow, 2009) and should lead to increased egg production. The fate of the additional eggs produced by restocked adult females is uncertain. The dispersal of lobster larvae by currents makes it difficult to predict settlement locations. In addition, it is difficult to isolate the effects of the restocking program from other environmental and behavioral factors that affect local larval abundances and lobster populations. However, current and proposed lobster management efforts by state and federal agencies are focused on increasing egg production. Therefore, the restocking project was consistent with current lobster management measures.
Factors limiting recovery of the ecosystem:
Natural recovery of the lobster population that was expected after the oil spill (Mauseth, 2001) did not occur. This lack of natural recovery indicates there were other factors that exacerbated the impact of the spill. In addition, the lobster is heavily exploited and high fishing mortality rates in the US and Canada have raised concerns about its population in general (Castro et al., 2001). Despite changes in fishing regulations and other management activities there is an overall decreasing trend in the southern New England lobster stock (ASMFC, 2006). Further management activities will be required to rebuild the stock and sustain the fishery.
Socio-Economic & Community Outcomes Achieved
Economic vitality and local livelihoods:
The New England lobster fishery is the most valuable commercial fishery in the Northeastern United States (ASMFC 2000). It supports a regional fishery of mainly small vessels that make day trips in nearshore waters as well as an offshore component. Restoration of the lobster population was necessary to ensure the resource continues to provide the ecosystem goods and services so important to the region's workforce and economy.
Key Lessons Learned
The lobster restoration program has been evaluated through monitoring during the restoration activities and post restoration by the resource trustees and a graduate research project at the University of Massachusetts. Monitoring conducted during the restoration led to corrective actions that improved the efficacy of the restoration activities. Post restoration evaluation of the monitoring methods indicated that the v-notch data effectively documented an increase in lobster abundance and the banding data offered valuable information for studying the local lobster population. However, neither method was designed to evaluate egg production or recruitment. The mark-recapture analysis was not sufficiently robust statistically to estimate ancillary population parameters such as intermolt period and reproductive cycles. Future restoration efforts that rely on v-notching should consider monitoring egg production and recruitment more directly and a more effective design of the banding program would improve statistical analyses.
Lobstermen have voluntarily continued to v-notch and release lobsters even though the restoration activities have been completed. This continuation of the marking program should pay dividends in the future and help to maintain the fishery.
Despite the United States’ best efforts to prevent spills, almost 14,000 oil spills are reported each year. The National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) provides the organizational structure and procedures to prepare for and respond to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants. The United States Coast Guard, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Interior, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and other organizations employ specially trained emergency response personnel ready to deploy advanced response mechanisms available for controlling oil spills and minimizing their impacts on human health and the environment. Since most spill response equipment and materials are greatly affected by factors such as conditions at sea, water currents, and wind; the key to effectively combating spills is careful selection and proper use of the equipment and materials best suited to the type of oil and the conditions at the spill site. Rapid response to spills and proper use of containment and recovery equipment can reduce the damage to shorelines and other threatened areas. Of equal importance, rapid and appropriate biological response protocols help to minimize injury to biological resources that utilize those habitats.
Sources and Amounts of Funding
Consent Decree in which the responsible parties agreed to deposit 7.8 million dollars into a North Cape Oil Spill Restoration account used to implement other restoration projects associated with the spill (e.g. shellfish, birds). The responsible party implemented the Lobster Restoration Project; statement of work outlined in Appendix B of the Consent Decree (Attachment 1). The cost of this restoration was estimated at 9.9 million U.S. dollars.
The information presented in this case study draws heavily from the Restoration Pan and Environmental Assessment for the January 19, 1996 North Cape Oil Spill prepared by NOAA, RIDEM, DOI and USFWS (Attachment 2).
ASMFC (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission) (2000) American lobster stock assessment report for peer review. Stock Assessment Report No. 00-01 (Supplement), ASMFC, Washington DC
ASMFC (Atlantic State Marine Fisheries Commission) (2006) American lobster stock assessment for peer review, Stock Assessment Report No. 06-03. A publication pursuant of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association.
Baczenski, P., A. Ganz and L. Delancey. 1979. A Shellfish Survey of Point Judith and Potter Pond. RIDEM Leaflet 55.
Castro, K.M., Cobb, J.S., Whale, R.A., and Catena, J. 2001. Habitat addition and stock enhancement for American lobsters. Mar. Freshwater Res., 52:1253-61.
Castro, K.M., Somers, A., Collie, J. and DeLong, A. 2003. North Cape Restoration Monitoring. Final Report. University of Rhode Island, Kingston RI.
Cobb, J.S. and M. Clancy. January 5, 1998. North Cape Oil Spill: Assessing Impact on Lobster Populations.
Cobb, J.S., M. Clancy, and R.A. Wahle. 1999. Habitat-based Assessment of Lobster Abundance: A Case Study of an Oil Spill. Merican Fisheries Society Symposium 22:285-298.
Crawford, R. 1990. Winter flounder in Rhode Island coastal ponds. Rhode Island Sea Grant #RIU-G-90-001.
Crawford, R. and C. Carey. 1985. Retention of winter flounder larvae within a Rhode Island salt pond. Estuaries 8(2B): 217-227.
French, D.P., 1998. Updated Estimate of Injuries to Marine Communities Resulting from the North Cape Oil Spill Based on Modeling of Fates and Effects. Report to NOAA Damage Assessment Center, Silver Spring, MD, September 1998.
French, D.P., 1999. North Cape oil spill: Synthesis of injury quantification and restoration scaling for lobsters. Report to NOAA Damage Assessment Center, March 30, 1999.
French McCay, D.P. 2003. Development and application of damage assessment modeling: Example assessment for the North Cape oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47:341-359.
French McCay, D.P., Gibson, M., Cobb, J.S., 2003. Scaling restoration of American lobsters: combined demographic and discounting model for an exploited species. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 264:177-196.
Ganz, A., P. Fletcher and R. Montefeltri. 1992. A Shellfish Survey of Ninigret Pond, Charlestown, R.I. RIDEM Leaflet.
Gibson, M.R., Angell, T.E., Lazar, N.B., 1997. Estimation of lobster strandings following the North Cape oil spill in Block Island Sound. Research Reference Document 97/1, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Rhode Island Dept of Environmental Management, Wickford (part of case administrative record, available at www.darp.noaa.gov/neregion/ncape.htm)
Gibson, M.R. 1998. Potential Egg Production From Lobsters Killed in the North Cape Oil Spill and Replacement Estimates Using Recycled Commercial Catch. Division of Fish and Wildlife, Rhode Island Dept of Environmental Management, Wickford.
Gibson, M.R. and Angell, T.E., 2006. Estimating the reduction in Fishing Mortality Rate on Area 2 Lobster Associated with the North Cape V-Notching Program. Division of Fish and Wildlife, Rhode Island Dept of Environmental Management, Wickford.
Mauseth, G.S., Challenger, G.E., Catena, J. and DeAlteris, J., 2001. Restoration and compensation of the Rhode Island lobster fishery following the North Cape oil spill. Proceedings 2001 International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute Pub. No. 14710, Washington , DC.
North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). 1988. Atlantic Coast Joint Venture. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hadley, MA. 106 pp.
Nixon, S.W. 1982. Nutrient dynamics, primary production, and fisheries yields of lagoons. Oceanologica Acta Sp: 357-371.
Nowicki, B. and S. Nixon. 1985. Benthic nutrient remineralization in a coastal lagoon ecosystem. Estuaries 8:182-190.
Olsen, S., and G. Seavey. 1983. The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program as Amended. Prepared for the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council, Wakefield, RI.
Olsen S. and Lee, V. 1985. Rhode Island’s Salt Pond Region: A Special Area Management Plan. Prepared for the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council. Adopted November 27. 1984.
Stokesbury K, and Bigelow T. 2009. Mark-recapture analysis of American lobster in Rhode Island Sound. [Final report; 69 p.] NOAA Contract No. NA07NMF4550321.
U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. DOC. 1992. Monthly Station Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, and Heating and Cooling Degree Days, 1961-1990. January 1992. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climatic Data Center.
Fact sheet of restoration activities associated with North Cape oil spill
Case documents associated with the North Cape oil spill
Final restoration plan and environmental assessment of North Cape oil spill
1999 News release regarding settlement of North Cape oil spill case
Overview of North Cape restoration
State of Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. News Release –
North Cape Oil Spill Trustees and Industry Successfully Complete North Cape Lobster Restoration Program (August 2006)
The Providence Journal news article: The North Cape Oil Spill
National Sea Grant Law Center publication: Lobsterman Unable to Recover Lost Profits from Catastrophic Oil Spill
1996 New York Time news article: Rhode Island Oil Spill Is More Serious Than Initially Thought
Professional Mariner, Journal of the Maritime Industry article: North Cape Lobster Restoration Program Completed
NOAA Press release: North Cape Oil Spill Presents Opportunity to Forge New Approach to Natural Resources Restoration
Text of a presentation given at Marine Log Tanker & Maritime Legislation conference and published in the November 1998 Marine Log: Lessons learned from the from the North Cape pollution incident
1996 University of Massachusetts newspaper Daily Collegian article: Oil Tanker Spill Leaves Rhode Island an Ecological Disaster
Appendix B of the Consent Decree: Lobster Restoration Plan
NOAA fact sheet on V-notching Program