Resource Database

©Danilo Lima, Agripalm Ambiental

The RRC database contains a wide variety of resources and publications related to ecological restoration, and we are actively working to expand this collection. It is our aim to serve as the principal clearinghouse for information and tools to support the work of researchers, practitioners, land managers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in restoration. Use the filter tool below to search the database by title, author, resource type, keyword, or any combination of these factors.

Although SER does review all entries in the database for relevance and quality, these resources have not been rigorously reviewed or extensively vetted in every case, and SER therefore makes no claim as to their accuracy or accordance with generally accepted principles in the field. The database is provided as a resource for visitors to the SER website, and it is ultimately left to the individual user to make their own determinations about the quality and veracity of a given publication or resource.

If there is a resource we missed, please let us know! We are interested in current books, articles, technical documents, videos, and other resources that are directly relevant to ecological restoration science, practice or policy, as well as resources treating the social, cultural and economic dimensions of restoration.

Publication Year:
Resource Type
Keyword
Title
Author

 

Scaling up forest landscape restoration in Canada in an era of cumulative effects and climate change

Abstract:

While the global restoration movement is rapidly gaining momentum, understanding the concept and benefits of forest and landscape restoration (FLR) is paramount to safeguarding the natural capital of Canada’s forests. In the face of increasing cumulative effects, we investigated the opportunities for scaling up FLR efforts in Canadian forests. The pace of industrial natural resource extraction developments (logging, agriculture, mining, and energy sector), and their overlapping in time and space with the impacts of climate change have resulted in ecosystem function and services alteration, as well as changes in natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildland fire and pests). These dramatic and synergistic changes to environmental, socio-economic and cultural values occurring in the landscape need to be considered in land use planning but are highly variable and uncertain. We suggested that adding FLR to the land …

Resource Type:Peer-reviewed Article
Publication Date: 2020

Selecting native plant material for restoration projects in different ecosystems

Abstract:

Due to loss of natural ecosystems and biodiversity around the world along the past decades, international initiatives are being developed to establish a foundation for the restoration of diverse ecosystems, prioritizing ecosystem biodiversity and resilience while also recognizing impacts on rural livelihoods and carbon storage. As programs have become more refined, a shift from revegetation with available material to using native plant materials of known genetic origin has been underway, and achieving increasing priority at an international level. Through research and collaborative partnerships, on local, regional and international levels, and between public and private sectors, approaches are being developed that addresses the challenges in using native genetic plant material in ecological restoration. Four study cases from different geographic locations and climatic conditions were selected to demonstrate the successes in using native genetic plant material, developing a baseline for native genetic resource management, and meeting challenges according to every ecosystem’s limiting factors. In Jordan’s desert ecosystem a developed native seed strategy has majorly improved seedling quality and post-planting survival rate. In the tropical ecosystem of Guinea Conakry, the major challenge is to identify best seed collection times and seed handling techniques to improve seed germination and propagation of native seedlings through seeds for the restoration of the Bossou corridor. Within Morocco’s Atlas Mountains, an emphasis is being made on the development of a traceability system for native genetic plant material used in restoration projects, considering the genetic variability within native species, starting with Cedrus atlantica. In Lebanon, considering the diverse ecosystems, a scheme for the selection of native plant material is developed within every restoration project, for dryland, riparian or forest ecosystems.

Speaker:

Karma Bouazza received her Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Engineering and her Master of Science in Plant Protection from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. She has worked since 2011 with the U.S. Forest Service International Programs in Lebanon, Jordan, Guinea, Zimbabwe, Morocco and Rwanda. Through research and collaborative partnerships, she has worked on developing approaches that addresses the challenges in using native genetic plant material in ecological restoration in diverse geographic locations and climatic conditions. Currently, she is also leading the Research and Development Component at the Lebanon Reforestation Initiative NGO, aiming at first identifying research gaps throughout the different fields of ecological restoration and wildlife conservation that hinder the sustainability of landscape management.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Moving to Industrial-Scale Coral Habitat Restoration

Abstract:

Jesper Elzinga, Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors, talks on ‘The Recovery of Reefs Using Industrial Techniques for Slick Harvesting and Release (RECRUIT)’ followed by Joaquim Garrabou, Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona on ‘Lessons Learned from Coral Restoration in Shallow and Deep Environments’. There is potential to assist the recovery of impacted coral habitats through marine ecosystem restoration, but can it be achieved at a meaningful scale? This webinar addressed some of the methods that might be used in restoration of coral habitats and their applicability at larger scales.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020

Fieldwork in the time of COVID-19

Abstract:

Join a panel of practitioners from several realms (governmental, contracting, and non-profit) to learn how they are adapting field work plans to reduce risks to practitioners and community members in the time of COVID 19. As we are all learning and adapting to this strange new world together, we’ll wrap up with time for participants to share their own ideas and ask questions of panelists and each other.

Speakers include the following SER-NW chapter board members: Jeff Barna, Ben Peterson, and Regina Wandler.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

University of Montana COVID-19 Guidelines for Off-campus Field Research

Abstract:

Guidelines for off-campus field research developed by the University of Montana (as of May 4, 2020).

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

Guidelines for volunteers and volunteer organizations during COVID-19 outbreak in Washington

Abstract:

During this national emergency, we understand individuals who are not suffering from the coronavirus may want to help. However, all volunteer activities must follow critical health and safety protocols so we can protect volunteers, residents, clients, and agencies. This document provides general guidelines for volunteers and volunteer organizations and may be useful is developing organization-specific best practices.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2020

Principles of Riverscape Health & Low-Tech Process-Based Restoration

Abstract:

In this webinar we will immerse you deeper into reading riverscapes; specifically, we will introduce the principles of riverscape health. These principles will be cast in a light to help you better recognize impairments, articulate the scope of what’s been lost, and realistically target recovery potential. Then we will introduce low-tech process-based restoration (PBR) as a means of addressing structural starvation so pervasive among many riverscapes today. We will briefly highlight six principles of low-tech PBR, which help guide restoration planning, design and implementation and more critically place our actions as ecological restoration practitioners in context. While we will focus on examples of these principles in practice for riverine and riparian ecosystmes, the mechanistic and functional focus has merit in cross-over to restoration of other ecosystems as well.

Speaker bio: Joe Wheaton is an Associate Professor Utah State and a fluvial geomorphologist with over eighteen years of experience in river restoration. Joe’s research is focused on better understanding the dynamics of riverscapes, how such fluvial processes shape instream and riparian habitats, and how biota modulate and amplify those processes. Joe o-founded the Restoration Consortium at USU and runs the Ecogeomorphology & Topographic Analysis Lab in USU’s Department of Watershed Science. Joe is also the lead author of the Low-Tech Process-Based Restoration of Riverscapes Design Manual and a principle and co-founder of a design-build restoration firm, Anabranch Solutions.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Parks and Recreation Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19 Best Practices Manual

Abstract:

Coronavirus safety protocols developed the City of Missoula (Montana, USA), including for fieldwork done by city staff in maintaining Missoula parks and open spaces.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

COVID-19 Work Protocols – Garden Cycles LLC

Abstract:

Safety protocols from Garden City, LLC, an organization in Washington (USA) focused on native plant restoration and invasive species control.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

Five Valley Land Trust COVID-19 Phase II Protocol

Abstract:

Guidelines from Five Valleys Land Trust (Montana, USA) on COVID-19 safety protocols.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

Modo de Operación en situación de pandemia COVID19 – Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Magallanes, Chile)

Abstract:

COVID-19 fieldwork and operation guidelines for the ecological restoration work being done in Parque Nacional Torres del Paine (Magallanes, Chile). Document includes guidelines in Spanish and English.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

COVID-19 Fieldwork Safety Plan – SWCA

Abstract:

COVID-19 Field Safety Protocols from SWCA COVID-19 Task Force (released in June 2020) including guidelines for pre-fieldwork, prepping and cleaning vehicles, communal living, personal hygiene, and post-work communication.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

COVID-19 Fieldwork Guidelines with Native American Community

Abstract:

These COVID-19 guidelines focus on fieldwork preparations that include a 2-week quarantine and working with a Native American/Indian community. The author has removed identifying information about the project and wishes them to be anonymous.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

COVID-19 Protection Plan – Skagit Land Trust

Abstract:

Skagit Land Trust prioritizes the well-being of our community, including our staff, volunteers,
contractors, partners, landowners and members. This protection plan lays out the protocols we will
follow during the Washington Stay Home order in response to the spread of COVID 19 – this is the version of the plan shared with volunteers.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2020

SER-WC Webinar: M.Sc. Projects

Abstract:

Join three recent graduates of the SFU/BCIT M.Sc. program as they discuss their Applied Research Projects. These projects are the central part of the M.Sc. Program.

Abby Wu – Assessing the potential impact of English ivy (Hedera helix) on the arthropod community of Stanley Park.

Shantanu Dutt – Biological Soil Crust for Reclamation of Mine Tailings.

Kate O’Neill – A climate adaptation plan: identifying thermal refugia for salmonids in the Tsolum River, BC.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

COVID-19 Resources for the Restoration Industry – ERBA

Abstract:

ERBA’s mission during the COVID-19 pandemic is to support our members’ continued business operations in a safe manner and act as a resource to Congress and policymakers working to support infrastructure investments. To that end, we are pleased to provide this COVID-19 resource center that contains links to letters, legal alerts, and government recovery program applications.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2020

Coastal Restoration Toolkit

Abstract:

The Coastal Restoration Toolkit was developed by Restore America’s Estuaries to provide high‐level, introductory educational information for community members on how to develop a coastal restoration project from concept to proposal. Divided into five topic areas (Flooding, Coastal Erosion, Water Quality, Invasive Species, and Wildlife Habitats), the Toolkit includes project examples, tools and resources, contacts, funding sources, and permitting information. The Toolkit is a launching point for developing solutions to coastal restoration opportunities that community members see in their local communities.

The Toolkit was commissioned by the NOAA Fisheries Office of Habitat Conservation/Restoration Center to support coastal communities and residents interested in using restoration to improve the condition of coastal habitats.  Coastal habitats provide valuable benefits to fish, wildlife, and communities. They are habitat for the fish we eat, are often the front line of protecting coastal communities from storms, and support cleaner water.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2020

A discussion of the findings from the 2020 Australian Native Seed Report

Abstract:

High quality seed from a range of native species is the foundation for restoring Australia’s many fragmented and degraded native landscapes (even more so in the light of catastrophic bushfires of the summer 2019/20). Yet, for many years, there have been concerns raised within the native seed sector about the need for a transition from one that is essentially a disparate, poorly supported or capitalised cottage-industry to a forward-focussed, structurally sound and cohesive restoration-supporting industry – a evolution that is required if it is to meet the many challenges facing ecological restoration in Australia. In the past there have been many more unknowns than knowns about the native seed sector and providing solutions to its many challenges has always been hampered by a lack of baseline data. For this reason, a survey on the status of the Australian native seed sector was instigated by the Australian Network for Plant Conservation. This was conducted between October 2016 and April 2017 with parties from all states and territories contributing (including seed collectors, growers/sellers/suppliers, purchasers/distributors, researchers). The survey aimed to generate data on a range of seed-related subjects including seed collection and handling practices, seed end-use and seed business structure and models. The survey also tested common perceptions on a range of sector-related topics to gauge opinions and gather feedback from sector participants. The survey, and subsequent Australian Native Seed Survey Report (launched in March 2020), provide an important snapshot of the status of the Australian native seed sector and further knowledge on its structure and its capacity to meet current and future seed demand for ecological restoration.

This seminar will provide a brief background Australia’s seed and restoration sectors, discuss survey findings and implications and present report recommendations.

Speaker: Paul is a restoration ecologist specialized in re-establishing species-rich native grasslands and grassy woodlands. In 2004 he instigated the Victorian ‘Grassy Groundcover Research Project’ (Melbourne University and Greening Australia), a state-wide, field-scale applied grassy restoration research program which showed for the first time under Australian conditions that complex grassy communities could be restored to a high functional quality. In 2011 he expanded the project to NSW focusing on EPBC-listed Cumberland Plain Grassy Woodland. There he continued to develop and refine cultivated seed production techniques and approaches for wildflowers and grasses to provide seed for restoration across that regionHe was awarded a Winston Churchill Fellowship in 2016 and toured the USA investigating its native seed and restoration sectors which profoundly influenced his views on native seed markets, seed cultivation and restoration. In 2017 he co-developed the Australasian Network for Plant Conservation-led Native Seed Sector Survey which aimed to gather critical information and feedback from restorationists nationally. In 2019 he joined Kalbar Resources to oversee rehabilitation strategies for the company’s Fingerboards project in east Gippsland (Victoria) which includes ambitious goals to restore nationally listed grassy woodland at hitherto untested landscape scales (in Australia) on parts of the post-mined landscape. He has been and remains an active advocate and believer in the importance of the role that ecological restoration can play in restoring Australia’s historic and current depletion of native plant communities

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

The National Estuarine Research Reserve System Story Map

Abstract:

The National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) is a network of 29 estuarine reserves. By implementing standardized approaches to the study of these estuaries, NERRS is able to learn more about the ecological and social trends of these ecosystems. The Story Map is an interactive tool that allows users to discover the reserves and the research being conducted in them.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2020

Germination strategies of selected Kuwaiti desert plants and their implications for dryland restoration

Abstract:

Desert plants use a number of strategies to survive in arid environments, which are characterized by extremely high temperature, intense radiation, strong winds, low and erratic rainfall, high evaporation rates, soil erosion, and lower nutrient availability. These species produce certain structures that help in seed dispersal to suitable microsites and/or regulate their germination response to prevailing conditions. Some species also produce heteromorphic seeds or maintain aerial seed banks to cope with extreme environmental conditions. The adaptive mechanisms in three of Kuwait’s native plants, namely, Farsetia aegyptia Turra (presence mucilage), Seidlitzia rosmarinus Boiss. (presence of wings) and Calligonum comosum (heteromorphic seeds) were studied and their germination behavior under different temperature and light regimes and elevated salinity conditions was determined in the present study. Irrespective of incubation temperature regimes and photoperiods, de-winged S. rosmarinus seeds germinated better (76-88% total germination) than intact seeds (24-41%) with the low temperature regime (20/15 °C) resulting in 10% higher germination (85-88% vs. 76-78%). Although the presence of mucilage and thermoperiod did not affect the germination, longer storage significantly increased the germinabilty of C. comosum seeds. Increasing salinity levels decreased the germination of all three species, but ungerminated seeds were able to germinate when the salinity stress was alleviated. These mechanisms allow them to minimize the impact of adverse habitat conditions and maintain seed viability. The implications of these adaptive mechanisms for dryland restoration will be discussed in this paper.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

The importance of root hydraulic function for the survival of planted seedlings in dry conditions

Abstract:

Root function and growth is critically important to the survival and performance of planted seedlings, especially in ecosystems with seasonal dry periods. In many restoration sites, limited access to soil moisture has the potential to reduce outplanting success. Root hydraulic conductance, Kr, measures the capacity of a plant’s root system to supply the shoot with water. Kr can be impacted by planting practices, environmental conditions, and subsequent seedling growth. Using techniques from plant hydraulic physiology, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to measure changes in root hydraulic conductance in Douglas-fir seedlings (Pseudotsuga menziesii) after transplanting. Douglas-fir is a key forest species in the western United States and planted Douglas-fir seedlings must survive summers with very little rainfall. We found that Kr increased linearly with seedling leaf area in well-watered conditions. However, in water-limited conditions, Kr did not increase as seedlings grew new needles, which in turn reduced photosynthesis and lowered total seedling biomass. These results indicate that water limitation changes root function even before the seedlings experience xylem cavitation and in ways that impact the water supply to the shoot. From these conclusions, we emphasize the importance of restoration practices that can mitigate water stress after planting, such as the timing of planting, site preparation methods that reduce competition for soil water, and nursery growing and handling protocols that promote high capacity for root growth. Careful attention to root quality, understanding root function, and taking actions to ensure root growth will be important for the success of restoration with planted seedlings.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Using dispersal and germination life traits of native vegetation to promote ecological restoration in southern New Caledonia

Abstract:

New Caledonia is considered to be one of the main “hotspots” of biological conservation. Its exceptional level of endemism is increasingly threatened by the expansion of human activities. One of the most important threats is habitat fragmentation due in part to fires and mine exploration on ultramafic massifs that erodes habitat quality. Natural environments affected must be restored to maintain the ecosystem services they provide. Over the past 40 years, revegetation techniques have aimed to reduce the impacts of erosion. However ecological restoration has only been pioneered in the past 15 years. Present research compliments previous studies and aims to (1) characterize dispersal and germination of plant species found in early successional maquis and forest mosaics on the Goro plateau in southern New Caledonia, (2) evaluate the trajectory of mine revegetation plantations based on the life traits of the species used from surrounding vegetation. A database was constructed and presents data dealing with 41 life-traits of 407 taxa found in the vegetation mosaic. In addition, an assessment restoration progress using the five-star recovery system developed by SER was conducted from surveys and measurements of both planted and colonizing vegetation. Finally, inventories of surrounding natural vegetation provided details of their structure and composition that highlight the ecological succession and permitted establishment of a local indigenous reference ecosystem. Recommendations based on results were provided to managers to assist in implementing ecological continuities projects including a list of candidate species to prioritize in future restoration programs.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Restoration Guidelines for Shellfish Reefs

Abstract:

This publication is intended to provide foundational information to serve as a useful starting point

for shellfish reef restoration. The purpose of this new guide is to provide both guidance in decision-making for establishing shellfish reef restoration projects and examples of different approaches undertaken by experienced practitioners in a variety of geographic, environmental and social settings. The process of undertaking restoration and terminology used to describe shellfish reef restoration in this guide adopts the 2019 SER Standards where possible.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2019

International standards for the practice of ecological restoration, 2nd edition

Abstract:

The second edition of the International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration was released on September 27, 2019, in Cape Town, South Africa at SER’s 8th World Conference on Ecological Restoration. This groundbreaking publication provides updated and expanded guidance on the practice of ecological restoration, clarifies the breadth of ecological restoration and allied environmental repair activities, and includes ideas and input from a diverse international group of restoration scientists and practitioners.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
The Standards provide information on the planning, implementation, monitoring and maintenance of ecological restoration projects in all types of ecosystems worldwide, providing key guidance for Groups of activities C and D. This resource stresses the importance of early, genuine and active engagement with stakeholders and emphasizes the use of appropriate native species in line with activity C1. Guidance can also be applied to allied restorative activities, including a wide array of nature-based solutions, in line with C2. Section 3 outlines a series of steps used to develop clear objectives and tasks for each step of a plan, in line with activities, C3 and C4. An appendix provides information on the selection of seeds and other propagules in the context of fragmentation and climate change, helpful for activity C2. The Standards also contain guidance for the monitoring of restoration projects. This guidance includes a tiered system from 1 to 5 stars to evaluate progress of a restoration project (D1) along a trajectory toward a reference model by assessing six key ecological attributes: species composition, structural diversity, ecosystem function, external exchanges, absence of threats, and physical conditions. An ‘ecological recovery wheel’, available online and as an Android app provides a framework to communicate restoration progress (D3). The SER Standards also provide a sample 'Social Benefits Wheel' to help assess and communicate the delivery of ecosystem services by restoration projects, in line with activities D1 and D3.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2019

Testing for evolutionary change in restoration: A genomic comparison between ex situ, native, and commercial seed sources of Helianthus maximiliani

Abstract:

North America’s grasslands are one of the most globally imperiled ecosystems and thus need restoration strategies that maintain evolutionary potential for persistence under rapidly changing conditions. However, the maintenance of evolutionary potential requires genetic variation for adaptive evolution. Thus, increasing our understanding for how preservation and propagation may modify genetic variation of material used in restoration will illustrate the important role evolutionary change may have influencing short- and long-term restoration success. A combination of evolutionary factors, including selection, demographic variation, and founder effects will influence the amount and type of genetic variation available in restoration material. Intentional or unintentional selection of restoration material may contribute to the evolution of seed sources, impacting performance and evolutionary potential following restoration. We examined genomic variation in Helianthus maximiliani, a perennial sunflower distributed across the Great Plains of North America that is commonly used in grassland restorations. We use next-gen sequencing (GBS) approaches to evaluate genomic variation within and among a combination of seed sources; including historical ex situ collections, native populations, and commercial seed sources. Our data suggest that genetic differences have evolved across seed source types. In particular, commercial seed sources exhibit significant genetic differentiation from both ex situ and native seed sources. Future work aims to tease apart the impact different evolutionary processes have had on the genomic structure of the different seed source populations. This work will include an evaluation of whether phenotypic variation in traits important to adaptation have evolved over time and in response to propagation.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

State of the research: Using activated carbon in herbicide protection pods to simultaneously reseed desirable species and treat invasive annual weeds

Abstract:

Restoration of desirable plants can be challenging in dryland settings, and the challenge is compounded when competing exotic species are present. Pre-emergent herbicides are frequently used to reduce competition from exotic annual plants prior to seed-based restoration. After application, reseeding desirable species usually must wait up to a year or more until herbicide toxicity has waned, and this herbicide-fallow period necessitates additional site visits to reseed. Also, if rapid annual reinvasion occurs, there may be little benefit from herbicide application. Herbicide protection pod (HPP) technology allows for simultaneous seeding and herbicide application by protecting desirable seeds inside pods or pellets containing activated carbon, thereby eliminating herbicide-fallow periods and allowing for single-entry restoration approaches. This technology has shown promise in multiple laboratory and field experiments to date, but many important questions remain and are under investigation. We present a review of the technology, then summarize recent results and ongoing research with emphasis on 1) optimizing HPP efficacy via modifying size and formulation, 2) comparing different delivery methods, and 3) scaling up production. Optimal HPP formulation and geometry depends on seed size and species, and refinement can decrease cost and improve efficiency. Traditional seed-delivery systems may need modification to ensure maximum performance of this technology. Industrial mass-production will be crucial to scaling up but presents challenges in maintaining product quality. We highlight additional opportunities and challenges and propose goals and priorities for ongoing research of this developing technology, which could prove to be transformative for restoration of invaded drylands.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Tropical savanna restoration by direct seeding: Steps forward

Abstract:

International commitments set a target for Brazil to restore 12 million hectares of natural habitat of which 5 million hectares are within the Cerrado (savanna) region. To achieve such commitments, we need restoration methods that are cost-effective and practical at a large scale. Since 2012, we have tested and developed direct seeding techniques to decrease costs and improve restoration success on grasslands and savannas. More than 200 hectares have been direct seeded to restore areas in central Brazil. The direct seeding techniques have been applied by an increasing number of private and public companies to promote restoration. We were able to establish more than 70 native grasses, shrubs and trees species; and significantly changed soil cover from exotic to native species. However, many challenges persist, especially the control of African grass species, widely introduced for pasturelands that become aggressive invaders. We tested mechanical control of invasive grasses (IG) through repetitive soil plowing before direct seeding and the introduction of different functional groups. A mixture of native species with perennial grasses and fast-growing shrub and tree species improves restoration success, especially in less fertile soils where IG fitness is reduced. Mechanical control decreases IG but does not eliminate them, and it causes severe soil disturbances. The use of chemical control, even inside legally protected areas, is highly recommended to improve restoration success in tropical grasslands and savannas where shading by thick tree layer would eliminate IG but create inadequate restoration endpoints. Improving native species harvesting and seeding techniques is also essential.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

A decade of direct seeding for forest restoration in the Brazilian Amazon, Cerrado, and Atlantic biomes

Abstract:

South Amazon forests have been highly deforested since the 1970’s. The Y Ikatu Xingu watershed campaign direct seeded 5 000 ha of forests from 2006 up to 2018. Direct seeding is considered a feasible, inexpensive, and effective method for ecological restoration with advantages that facilitate large-scale use, such as mechanized operations. Nevertheless, little is known about the successional trajectory of tropical forests restored through direct seeding. We sampled 72 direct seeded sites (1-10-y old), three seedling planted sites, and six natural regeneration sites, along a latitudinal gradient of 600 km in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sites began dominated by herbs and shrubs (green manure, short cycle leguminous), followed by 1 to 5 light-demanding tree species, while slow-growing species were present in the understory. After four years, direct-seeded sites formed a multi-layered canopy and were starting to be colonized by non-planted species. We sampled 90 species from the 152 seeded plus 68 colonizer species. Seeded communities present more orthodox, wind-dispersed seeds than reference forests. However, animal-dispersed and recalcitrant seed traits are found in colonizers. Canopy frequently closed (80%), forming a tall secondary forest with high height-to-diameter ratio trees that do not bifurcate in the first 3 years. Broadcast seeding sites had higher seedling and sapling densities than sites that received other restoration methods. In conclusion, direct seeding was a successful method for tropical forest restoration, promoting a structure that was more like resilient natural regeneration sites than to non-resilient natural regeneration sites and seedling planting sites.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Rate of forest recovery after fire exclusion on anthropogenic savannas in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Abstract:

Deforestation in the tropics is often followed by the creation of anthropogenic savannas used for animal husbandry. By discontinuing burning regimes, forests may recolonize the savanna and carbon stocksmay recover. However, little is known about the success and speed of tropical forest recovery, while such information is vital for a better quantification of efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) as well as supporting Forest LandscapeRestoration (FLR) practices. Therefore, we designed a forest regeneration experiment within a savanna patch in the Mayombe hills(Democratic Republic of Congo), by discontinuing the annual burning regime in an 88 ha exclosure since 2005. 101 permanent inventory plots (40.4 ha) were installed in 2010 and remeasured in 2014. Tree species were classified as savanna or forest specialists. We estimate a forest specialist encroachment rate of 9 stems ha−1 yr−1 and a savanna specialist disappearance rate of 16 stems ha−1 yr−1. Average diameter of forest specialists did not change due to an increasing influx of recruits, while average diameter of savanna trees increased due to decreasing recruitment. Carbon stored by forest specialists increased from 3.12 to 5.60 Mg C ha−1, suggesting a forest carbon recovery rate of 0.62 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Using the average carbon stock of 19 nearby mature rainforestplots as a reference, we estimate a total forest carbon recovery time of at least 150 years. The Manzonzi exclosure may potentially become an important reference experiment to quantify REDD+ schemes in Central Africa. Furthermore, this natural regeneration experiment demonstrates how carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation can go hand-in-hand. However, more censuses are needed to better quantify the long-term carbon recovery trajectory within the protected area.

Resource Type:Peer-reviewed Article
Publication Date: 2019

Seed networks for upscaling native seed supply in Brazil

Abstract:

Brazil has committed to restore 12 million hectares of degraded lands by 2030, however, there is a shortage of native seed supply. In this research, we assess the outcomes of six Brazilian seed networks in the Amazon, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest Biomes, and estimate the plant material demanded to achieve the national restoration goal. Seed networks have operated through non-governmental and governmental organisations that link local communities who have produced seeds with restoration markets. Overall, these initiatives have produced 386 tonnes of seeds and engaged 1,046 collectors over the last 10 years. Each collector produced on average 45.5 kg of seed per year, receiving approximately US$270 yearly as cash income, regardless of the year, network or region. We also estimated – based on 2,152 germination tests of 122 species – a germination rate of 39.9 ± 7.9%. Running a Markov Chain Monte Carlo with 10,000 rounds we found a minimum germination rate of 17.75% for the mix of 122 species. Our finds show implementing Brazil’s targets will require from 18,876 to 88,861 tonnes of seeds, and between 9,796 and 14,994 million seedlings depending on the restoration methods adopted. Although there are caveats in these estimates because of lack of knowledge about seed ecology and the complex field interactions and responses, restoration clearly requires a broader investment compared with the current structure and technology available. Although the community-based model is a potential productive arrangement, for spreading initiatives it is essential to overcome the limitations in knowledge and uncertain policies and markets.

 

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program