Resource Database

©Danilo Lima, Agripalm Ambiental

The RRC database contains a wide variety of resources and publications related to ecological restoration, and we are actively working to expand this collection. It is our aim to serve as the principal clearinghouse for information and tools to support the work of researchers, practitioners, land managers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in restoration. Use the filter tool below to search the database by title, author, resource type, keyword, or any combination of these factors.

Although SER does review all entries in the database for relevance and quality, these resources have not been rigorously reviewed or extensively vetted in every case, and SER therefore makes no claim as to their accuracy or accordance with generally accepted principles in the field. The database is provided as a resource for visitors to the SER website, and it is ultimately left to the individual user to make their own determinations about the quality and veracity of a given publication or resource.

If there is a resource we missed, please let us know! We are interested in current books, articles, technical documents, videos, and other resources that are directly relevant to ecological restoration science, practice or policy, as well as resources treating the social, cultural and economic dimensions of restoration.

Publication Year:
Resource Type
Keyword
Title
Author

 

Prioritization Tools: A Case for the Management Unit Control Plan tool

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Is the restoration of thicket in the Albany Thicket Biome with woody species really not feasible?

Abstract:

It has been reported that the restoration of semi-arid thicket with woody species is not ecologically feasible in South Africa. Transformed and degraded semi-arid thicket exhibits exceedingly poor resilience with normal succession precipitating low species diversity dominated by grasses and ephemerals. The transformed and degraded mesic-thicket types have only slightly improved resilience but also limited species richness with many guilds missing – despite many decades without the drivers of degradation being present. The restoration of thicket has largely been focused on the en masse planting of one species (Portulacaria afra) with the assumption that, once established, it will facilitate the natural return of the other species, specifically the missing woody plant guild.  A lack of understanding regarding the ecophysiology of key woody species, as well as the nuances of the microclimate needed for succession has limited restoration success in the thicket. This research seeks to take a systems approach to understanding the multi-scale dynamics for the restoration of mesic-thickets, then apply the wisdom gained from this process to tackling the major challenge of effective restoration of degraded thicket areas with woody species.  The results from fifteen common woody species found in mesic thickets indicates that drought-sensitivity, germination success, seedling growth rate, herbivory, nurse-planting, tree-shelters, ponding, and other treatments have significant species-specific effects. The intimate understanding of these relationships correlated spatially and temporally with the major thresholds that limit the germination, establishment, survival, growth rate, and canopy recruitment – will enable the successful restoration of thicket with woody species.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

The Koup, the gold standard in community base natural resource management in Western Cape, South Africa

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

The implications of a “project” mindset on ecological restoration at the community level – Mpophomeni township as a case study

Abstract:

The Mpophomeni enviro-champs are lauded as a best practice model for a community-based approach to catchment management and restoration. Vital work to help “Save Midmar Dam” has been undertaken by a handful of community members for several years, and they were recently mentioned in the Presidential Jobs Summit Framework Agreement. However, when one scratches under the surface, the tale of the Enviro-champs and their essential work is one of two steps forward, and one step back. Funding has been from several sources, over various time frames, with disparate objectives, resulting in loss of momentum, and at times disillusionment. The Mpophomeni Enviro-champs are just one example of how short-term funding cycles impact negatively on effective, sustainable ecological restoration at a community level. The approach to community-based ecological restoration needs to shift to long-term programming that is built into the “operations” of responsible authorities. The business case for this approach is clear, with the annual operating cost of maintaining community teams much lower than the cost of refurbishment, rehabilitation and/or replacement due to the lack of daily maintenance of our ecosystems. The benefit to the natural environment is only one of the impacts; the social impact within the broader community being equally important. With a long-term funding mindset, ecological restoration moves from the simple tasks of clearing, cleaning, and monitoring, to broader education and social change of an entire community and its relationship to the natural environment. Surely this should be our goal.

 

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Undervalued and Overlooked: Naturally Regenerated Vegetation in Agroecological Landscapes

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Restoring habitat and hope: The Sagebrush in Prisons Project

Abstract:

The Sagebrush in Prisons Project, a collaborative effort between the US Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management, Institute for Applied Ecology, and state Departments of Correction engages multiple prisons across seven western states (CA, ID, MT, NV, OR, WA, UT) in the United States. Working with prison systems to engage inmates in habitat conservation and ecological science is an innovative approach to increase our ability to reestablish habitat and at-risk species, while simultaneously providing people in custody with opportunities for reciprocal restoration, vocational education, therapeutic activities, safer conditions, and lower costs of imprisonment. Adults in custody contribute to the conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse and its habitat, the Sagebrush Sea, by growing sagebrush plants in prison-run native plant nurseries. This distributed network of nurseries produces locally sourced sagebrush seedlings for habitat restoration on public lands, primarily in response to wildfires in priority habitat for the grouse. The quality of these sagebrush seedlings is exceptional, and first year survival is very high (>80%). Since 2014, the program has engaged over 3,500 adult and youth inmates who grew and planted over 1.1 million sagebrush seedlings. Adults in custody also receive training in horticulture and nursery production, lectures in science and conservation, and certificates for their accomplishments. Including incarcerated people in conservation and science taps into the positive potential of over 2 million inmates at over 4,000 prisons and jails in the United States and creates new partnerships for educating an underserved community and supporting large scale ecological restoration and research. 

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Rural Community Socio-ecological Benefits in the Upper Pongola Catchment

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

IUCN World Database on Key Biodiversity Areas

Abstract:

The World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas hosts data on Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs). This database can support strategic decisions on protected areas by governments or civil society towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It also guides the identification of sites under international conventions and in the setting of private sector policies and standards. The database is managed by the KBA Partnership, which comprises 13 partners and is served by the KBA secretariat hosted jointly by BirdLife International and IUCN.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
The planning of restoration interventions and their location can also draw on assessments of areas of global importance for biodiversity such as IUCN Key Biodiversity Areas. Map data can be used in combination with other data for GIS analysis to identify and prioritize areas for restoration (A2).

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

DroneSeed: Using UAVs to conduct surveys, herbicide applications, and aerial seed deployment in forests and rangelands

Abstract:

DroneSeed is a Seattle-based startup that is developing software, hardware, and infrastructure for operational capacity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to conduct surveying, herbicide application, and aerial seed deployment in forests and rangelands. Their mission is to provide more efficient and rapidly scalable survey and revegetation services for myriad ecosystem management needs. They are currently paid per acre to survey, mitigate invasive species with herbicides, and plant (enabled seed) for the largest timber companies in the US. They are also partnered with The Nature Conservancy and have begun seed-based rangeland restoration work in Oregon and post-fire forest restoration work in other locations in the American West. The presentation will provide an overview of the company’s technology, review projects and milestones, and outline the research and development supporting their data-driven approach. Wildfire and other large-scale ecosystem disturbances are increasing in frequency and severity. Constraints to post-disturbance revegetation include accessibility to remote areas, difficulty distributing seed precisely at scale, invasive species mitigation, and associated costs. DroneSeed is developing a multi-pronged approach to revegetation using UAVs that is applicable to large-scale post-disturbance revegetation and native plant management at an effective cost. Their supervised classification platform is the basis for a machine learning software being developed for seed placement (i.e. micrositing) for optimizing germination and survival. DroneSeed is increasing operational capacity using swarm technology, enabling multiple heavy lift aircraft to move material payloads across restoration areas with increased precision. The company is precedent setting in the regulatory environment allowing for this work.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Stewardship: taking care of something, e.g. valuable objects

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Abstract:

The IUCN Red List provides regularly updated assessments of conservation status of many species as well as geographic range maps for each of them. It provides the  world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
Planning of restoration interventions and their location can draw on spatially explicit information on areas of importance for threatened species, such as those provided here. Range maps can be downloaded for further GIS analysis, and used to prioritize essential areas for restoration based, in line with activity A2.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

Secondary invasion after clearing invasive Acacia saligna in the South African fynbos

Abstract:

It is often assumed that clearing invasive alien species will lead to the dissipation of their negative impacts and recovery of native biodiversity. However, this is often not the case because clearing of primary invasive alien species can lead to secondary invasion by non-target species. We investigated the effects of vegetation type and application of fire during management of biomass after clearing invasive acacias on secondary invasion in the South African fynbos. Furthermore, we determined how these effects change with years after clearing. We sampled vegetation in lowland and mountain fynbos cleared of Acacia saligna using the “fell, stack and burn” method. During burning of the stacked slash, the area at the centre of the stack experiences a high severity fire while the area at the edge experiences a low severity fire. After fire, burn scars remain in place of the stacked slash. We sampled in and outside of 80 burn scars over three years after clearing. We identified 32 secondary invader species. Secondary invader cover was lower where there were no fires compared to where there were high severity fires (27%) and low severity fires (30%). Three years after clearing, secondary invader richness and cover remained similar to or higher than in the first year, while secondary invader richness was similar between lowland and mountain fynbos. We conclude that practicing restoration ecologists have to manage these species to ensure successful restoration of native biodiversity.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Ex-situ Plant Conservation in Eastern Madagascar: Creating a Resource for Future Forest Restoration Endeavours

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Seeds and stewards of the future: A U.S. collaboration

Abstract:

As the foundation of healthy functioning ecosystems, native plant communities buffer the impacts of extreme events such as wildfires, invasives, and prolonged drought. Under the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) “multiple-use” mandate, there is a significant need for locally adapted, native plant materials to restore and support resilient ecosystems. BLM leads Seeds of Success (SOS), a U.S. native seed collection program, in partnership with numerous other federal agencies and non-federal organizations. SOS was established in 2001 as the first step in the Native Plant Materials Development Process, with the mission to collect wildland native seed for research, development, germplasm conservation, and ultimately ecosystem restoration. Portions of each collection are held in long-term storage facilities for conservation. SOS has a national protocol to coordinate seed collecting and species targeting efforts. To date, SOS has more than 24,400 native seed collections through its diverse network. SOS includes many partners, such as arboreta, zoos, municipalities, and botanic gardens, including Chicago Botanic Garden, which developed the Conservation and Land Management (CLM) internship program. The CLM program places 75-100 early-career scientists in five-month paid internships to assist professionals with projects, including SOS.​ Since 2001, the CLM program has successfully placed over 1500 interns, providing them with a rich experience from which to launch their professional careers. The success of both CLM and SOS are contingent upon each other and the highly qualified interns who have made the majority of SOS collections.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Linking Fire and Ecosystem Restoration in Mediterranean climate-region shrublands and forest: a view from six continents

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

UN-REDD Programme

Abstract:

The UN-REDD Programme supports countries to apply the UNFCCC’s safeguards, and to conduct land-use planning for REDD+ to deliver multiple environmental and social benefits while reducing risk. REDD+ activities, as defined by the UNFCCC, includes the enhancement of forest carbon stocks, which may be implemented through restoration interventions.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
The UN-REDD website contains resources on stakeholder engagement and gender balance (A3), forest governance (A4), and tenure security (B2). The Multiple Benefits webpage of the UN-REDD Programme contains a number of national and subnational scale spatial analyses of the potential for REDD+ implementation to deliver multiple benefits, which include the conservation of biodiversity, in line with activity A4. Several mapping tutorials and a GIS toolbox are also available to support REDD+ planning and secure multiple benefits.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

Peatland degradation: From fire to restoration – southern African case studies

Abstract:

Peatlands compose 50% of the world’s wetlands, host a third of terrestrial carbon, and 10% of fresh water resources. However, the occurrence, functioning, and value of peatlands in drier climates, such as southern Africa, is poorly understood and their conservation status unsure. During the recent extensive regional drought, peat fires were reported from the wetter east in the Kingdom of Swaziland (KoS) and coastal KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA), and the drier west in North West Province (SA) with the latest fire reported in 2019 in the southern Western Cape Province (SA). Degraded peatlands turn from carbon sinks to sources. Peatland desiccation results from the draining of peat pores, oxidation of the peat, compaction, hydrophobicity, and eventual collapse of the accumulated peat due to impacts such as drainage, erosion, or water abstraction. Peatland restoration can be complex, and therefore expensive, with varying levels of success. Not only hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation dynamics need be considered, but also a suite of microbial communities and bio-chemical processes must to be in place. A peat fire is the (burning of the) last straw resulting in the total collapse of these sensitive ecosystems. Restoration of peatlands should therefore aim to address the impacts first that resulted in the desiccation (e.g. water abstraction upstream from the peatland or an erosion gully draining it). This study focuses on five fire-scarred peatlands in SA and KoS and the success of restoration efforts using various techniques.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Dhesigen Naidoo Opening Plenary: Challenges in a Multi-Polar World

Abstract: Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Community asynchrony rather than climate change determine the temporal stability of plant community biomass: A 20-year experimental study in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Abstract:

Climate changes have the potential to influence the temporal stability of plant community biomass in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, but most studies were based on short-term field climate manipulation experiments, the response of biomass stability of natural alpine meadow remain largely unexplored. We conduct a 20-year experimental study in eastern QTP with linear regressions and a path analysis of annual temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, annual precipitation distribution, biomass stability of grass, biomass stability of forb, community asynchrony to assess the influence climate change and biological factors on the temporal stability of plant community biomass, we find that it was community asynchrony rather than climate change determine the temporal stability of plant community biomass and alpine meadow ecosystems are resistant to climate change. Our findings suggest that future climate change may have considerable uncertainty about the temporal stability of plant community biomass in the alpine meadow and we should combine with both field climate manipulation experiments and long-term observational experiments to assess the influence of climate change on the temporal stability of plant community biomass.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Genetic identity and genetic purity: Who cares?

Abstract:

Assume that you as a plant professional are in charge of restoring a compromised landscape as it was pre-disturbance, or at least revegetate it to similar ecological form and function. You find seeds in the marketplace that appear applicable to your project at a price you can afford and order them delivered. You end up with a very nice pile of bags, bins, or boxes. Do you care if they are labeled correctly with the proper species, germplasm notation, and provenance (i.e., genetic identity)?  Do you care if the delivered seeds possess the genetic traits (and include minimal off-types or contaminants) representative of the natural populations or germplasm selections that you specified (i.e., genetic purity)?  If you do care, do you have the resources available to accomplish your own investigation before planting to verify genetic identity and genetic purity?  If you don’t have the resources, you might want to learn about seed certification schemes for native seeds applicable in your part of the world that provide traceability of origin and collection and that ensure compliance with high standards for cultivated multiplication. Sampling and testing may also be required so that the seed purity and viability is known. In this presentation, we will briefly present to you existing examples of seed certification frameworks worldwide, address the basics of the certification process and what is really necessary, and welcome your input and opinions on this topic.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

An information system for monitoring changes in South Africa’s freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem condition

Abstract:

South Africa’s unique freshwater biodiversity is under enormous pressure from human activities, climate change, and invasive species. River health is deteriorating faster than it can be measured, and the data that do exist suggest that human impacts have and continue to severely compromise biodiversity and aquatic ecosystem function. This can have serious adverse consequences for ecosystem services, such as the provision of food and safe, clean drinking water. Until now, there has been no informative and accessible database for hosting river biodiversity data in South Africa, impeding assessments of historic and current river conditions. Such information is critical for establishing baselines and measuring patterns of change in response to human-linked impacts and restoration efforts. The Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (FBIS) is a response to this knowledge gap, and through consultations with data users and contributors, and collaborations with key partners and stakeholders, aims to provide South Africa’s first platform for rapid and reliable assessments of change in freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem condition. The project seeks to mobilize and import to the system baseline biodiversity data, identify strategic long-term monitoring sites (including sites associated with key restoration projects), and train key organizations on how to use the information system. Through the use of map-based visualisations, user-friendly data dashboards and rapid data extraction capabilities, the system will improve knowledge of freshwater biodiversity and long-term river health, and thereby support better-informed river management decisions and ecological restoration projects.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019

Asia-Pacific Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) Repository

Abstract:

Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) in the context of REDD+ continues to be a challenging concept. There is no single internationally agreed definition. Neither is there a single way to implement FPIC. It varies across regions, countries, contexts, peoples and communities. There is, however, a growing body of practitioners, be it UN-REDD Programme partner countries, or REDD+ project developers, who have taken the discussion beyond the realm of the rhetoric into actual demonstration. This repository aims to facilitate and encourage knowledge and experience exchange among practitioners as well as those interested to embark on FPIC within the Asia-Pacific region.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
This is a repository for information on a safeguarding system that can be used to engage stakeholders and protect their fundamental rights (A3).

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

Assessing, with limited resources, the contribution of wetland restoration to ecosystem services supply

Abstract:

Resources for evaluating the ecological outcomes of investments in ecological restoration are often limited. In order to rapidly assess the contribution of wetland restoration to the functionality of a wetland for supplying ecosystem services, a method has been developed based on the WET-EcoServices method. A set of indicators (e.g. hydraulic roughness of the vegetation) are rated on a five-point scale. Indicator scores are then combined in an algorithm that attempts to reflect the relative importance and interactions of the attributes represented by the indicators. In addition, the extent of the affected wetland area is recorded. Furthermore, supply is placed in the context of the demand for the ecosystem services, based on the number of beneficiaries and their level of dependency. Thus, the greater the increase in functionality over the wetland area for which there is a high demand for the ecosystem services, the greater will be the contribution of wetland rehabilitation in terms of ecosystem services. This provides a currency for comparing different wetland rehabilitation sites or scenarios within a site.  Application of the method is illustrated by comparing five different wetland restoration sites in South Africa’s Working for Wetlands program, encompassing a diversity of land use contexts. At some sites the contribution to supply was much greater both in terms of the spatial extent of the wetland and the level to which the functionality of the positively affected area had been raised. However, this was often not accompanied by a correspondingly greater demand for the services at the site.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019

REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards

Abstract:

The REDD+ Social & Environmental Standards provide a comprehensive framework of principles, criteria, and indicators along with Guidelines for their use through a participatory and transparent approach at country level. The Standards and the accompanying Guidelines were developed by the REDD+ SES Initiative through an inclusive participatory process from 2009 to provide a best-practice framework that can be used on a voluntary basis as appropriate and relevant to the country context.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
This is a source for safeguarding systems that can be used to engage stakeholders and protect their fundamental rights (A3).

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

Determining optimal germination cues for use in restoration seeding in a lowland Fynbos ecosystem

Abstract:

Invasive alien plants impact ecosystems, which often necessitates their removal. Where indigenous species recovery fails following removal alone, active seed reintroduction of native species may be needed. This study investigated the potential for combined smoke and heat pre‐treatment of seeds in breaking dormancy and facilitating increased germination. Selected species represent different functional types in the Cape Flats Sand Fynbos; a fire‐prone, critically endangered vegetation type in South Africa. Seeds were exposed to either a heat pulse (temperatures between 60 and 300°C for durations between 30 s and 20 min) or dry after‐ripening (1 or 2 months at milder temperatures of 45°C or less). Thereafter, seeds were soaked in smoke solution for 18 h and subsequently placed on agar at 10/20°C for germination. Most species fell into one of two main groups: Seed germination in the first group was greatest following a lower temperature (60°C) heat pulse, an extended period of mild temperatures (20/40°C or 45°C) exposure, or no pre‐treatment with heat. Seed germination in the second group was promoted after brief exposure to higher (100°C) temperatures. No germination occurred in any species following heat treatments of 150°C or higher. Species that responded better to higher temperatures were mainly those possessing physical dormancy, but seed morphology did not correlate with germination success. This study showed that heat stimulation of seeds is more widespread in fynbos plant families than previously known and will enable development of better seed pre‐treatment protocols before large‐scale sowing as an active restoration treatment after alien plant clearing.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

The role of seeding density, species composition, and abiotic constraints to competitively exclude Phragmites re-invasion in Great Salt Lake wetland restorations

Abstract:

Invasive species are a global environmental challenge that have contributed to degradation of wetland ecosystems. Phragmites australis is of particular concern in wetlands, particularly in the Great Salt Lake wetlands of the U.S. Intermountain West, as it rapidly outcompetes native species that provide important ecosystem functions. While seed-based restoration is a promising restoration strategy following P. australis control, recruitment following seeding is often unpredictable and largely unsuccessful. Seed sowing density is an important consideration, though few guidelines exist for optimal seeding density in wetland restoration. Furthermore, competitive exclusion of invaders depends not only on initial seeding density, but also the composition (i.e. functional roles/traits) of native species and environmental conditions. To address these context-dependencies, we conducted two mesocosm experiments investigating: 1) the influence of P. australis density and the density of a mix of diverse native species on recruitment, and 2) the effect of water and nutrient availability on competitive interactions. For experiment 1, mesocosms were sown with P. australis seeds at three densities and a native seed mix at four densities. We found that higher native seeding densities resulted in increased native biomass, but only when P. australis propagule pressure was greatly reduced. In the second experiment, we identified the species and sowing densities that were better able to exclude P. australis across a range of environmental conditions. Taken together, these results provide a better understanding of the context dependency of competitive interactions in wetland restoration, which can be used to maximize wetland restoration outcomes with limited seed supplies.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAPs)

Abstract:

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (NBSAPs) optimally contain information on geographical areas where restoration would contribute most significantly to achieving national level targets contributing to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
These plans are particularly relevant to activities B1 and B6 as they provide frameworks for nations to align national biodiversity targets, restoration targets and ecosystem-based climate mitigation and adaptation targets.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019

Predicting and alleviating dormancy in challenging species: Insights and innovations from the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership

Abstract:

The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (UK) works with countries in the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership (MSBP) to carry out germination tests on locally sourced seed collections of wild plant species from all over the world. Germination tests are conducted after drying seeds at 15% equilibrium relative humidity (eRH) and 18°C prior to hermetic storage at -20°C. Seed dormancy, which functions to ensure seeds germinate at the best possible time for seedling establishment, represents a significant obstacle in monitoring viability in some species. Understanding how dormancy functions in the natural environment is crucial and so climate data are used for choosing dormancy breaking treatments and germination conditions. For instance, Dry afterripening (seeds held at 60% eRH and warm temperatures of c. 20°C) alleviates dormancy by simulating a dry season. In some species dormancy ensures seeds germinate sporadically over several years in nature. It is possible to shorten this time by extracting the embryo from seeds in the laboratory, as in the case of Galeopsis angustifolia, but this is time consuming and not suitable for large-scale restoration works. Move-along experimental designs, where seeds are moved through a sequence of different temperatures to simulate different seasons, are preferred. This protocol has been successfully used to propagate seeds of Adonis annua. Heat and smoke pre-treatments can also be used for breaking seed dormancy and cuing germination in restoration. Light or darkness may function as an important germination cue, such as photoinhibition of seed germination in some monocots in open, disturbed, and dry habitats.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Bet hedging through fine-scale intraspecific variation in seed dormancy and seed germination cues in the Australian arid tropics

Abstract:

Seed biology in the annual herbaceous flora of ecologically stressful, seasonally wet habitats remains largely unexplored. Temporal and spatial species turnover among these habitats is often high, yet little is known about how fine-scale habitat variation drives intraspecific variability in seed dormancy depth and seed germination requirements. We present seed biology data from over 50 species of wetland plants from the Australian Monsoon Tropics, as well as complementary habitat data, and show that fine-scale differences in the thermal and hydrological conditions of seasonally wet habitats appear to be strong drivers of dormancy depth. Widely distributed species exhibit high levels of plasticity in seed-dormancy depth and germination response to germination stimuli such as biogenic ethylene among different habitats, with similar responses being observed for sympatric species. Sediment seed banks may represent significant drivers of species persistence and diversification in these ecosystems, and inhabitant flora display a high degree of adaptation to local hydro-geological conditions, potentially reflecting a long and relatively geologically and climatically stable evolutionary history.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program

Direct seed harvesting techniques in mesotrophic grasslands

Abstract:

Brush harvesting, hay transfer, and other ‘near-natural’ direct harvesting techniques are effective and well-established means of overcoming seed limitation in grassland restoration. The species composition and viability of seed captured by these techniques significantly influences restoration success, varying according to grassland type, local environmental conditions, and harvesting methodology, but is not always fully understood or accounted for in restoration projects. In this study, carried out at RBG Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank (MSB), we compare the species composition and viability of seed harvested using brush and combine harvesting techniques in mesotrophic grassland, and brush and green hay transfer techniques in calcareous grassland. The effectiveness of each technique in capturing the species-diversity of the donor community is assessed, including interactions between harvesting technique and key plant traits including dispersal time and height. Costs and practical considerations associated with each technique will be discussed alongside new MSB protocols for species composition analysis and viability testing of large mixed-species harvests.

Resource Type:Audio/Video, Conference Presentation, SER2019
Publication Date: 2019
Pre-approved for CECs under SER's CERP program