Juwarkar, A.A., S.K. Singh and A. Mudhoo
In this review, we discuss the various in situ and ex situ bioremediation techniques and elaborate on the anaerobic digestion technology, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulation, composting and biosorption for their effectiveness in the biotreatment, stabilization and eventually overall remediation of contaminated strata and environments. The review ends with a note on the recent advances genetic engineering and nanotechnology have had in improving bioremediation. Case studies have also been extensively revisited to support the discussions on biosorption of heavy metals, gene probes used in molecular diagnostics, bioremediation studies of contaminants in vadose soils, bioremediation of oil contaminated soils, bioremediation of contaminants from mining sites, air sparging, slurry phase bioremediation, phytoremediation studies for pollutants and heavy metal hyperaccumulators, and vermicomposting.
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology