Bridgeland, W.T., P. Beier, T. Kolb and T.G. Whitham
Our results suggest that this trophic system is predominately bottom-up driven, but under certain conditions the influence of top predators can stimulate whole tree growth. When the most limiting factor for tree growth switched from water availability to herbivory, the avian predators gained the potential to reduce herbivory. This potential could be realized when strong links between the birds and plant, i.e., species that were both abundant herbivores and preferred prey, were present.