The Society for Ecological Restoration Primer on Ecological Restoration (SERPER) states, “Ecological restoration is an intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of an ecosystem with respect to its health, integrity, and sustainability” and attempts to return an ecosystem to its historic condition. Active, intentional management (AIM) is a conservation approach that emphasizes a full range of active and passive management techniques to manage important ecological and hydrologic processes to conserve biodiversity; reconcile conflicts over management of natural resources; and provide various goods, ecological services, and recreational and spiritual opportunities to people over the long term. AIM includes intangibles such as knowing that rare species exist, that “wild” places are deliberately in place, and that ecological services important to the biosphere are maintained. How does AIM compare to restoration? Can AIM meet restoration goals? Specifically, can AIM reproduce the 10 traits of pristine ecosystems identified by SERPER? Measures can be used to evaluate success.