Ahmed Ammar, M.S.
On a global scale, the value of the total economic goods and services provided by coral reefs have been estimated to be US$375 billion per year with most of this coming from recreation, sea defence services and food production, this equates to an average value of around US$6,075 per hectare of coral reef per year. Degradation of reefs means the loss of these economic goods and services, and the loss of food security and employment for coastal peoples, many of them in developing countries and many of them living in poverty. In a healthy reef system which has not been physically damaged, an impacted area might be expected to recover naturally to its pre-disturbance state along a successional trajectory. If degradation is sufficiently severe or spatially extensive, then active restoration e.g. transplantation, in combination with management actions to reduce anthropogenic stress are necessary. Recoverability depends on the stressor, the impacted species/community and the temporal and spatial intensities of the stressor.
The Open Environmental Engineering Journal