Yoshihara, Y., T. Sasaki, T. Okuro, J. Undarmaa and K. Takeuchi
Facilitation (positive plant–plant interactions) is a potential means to accelerate vegetation restoration in arid areas. Shrubs can accelerate vegetation recovery by means of soil amelioration, but this effect has not been evaluated at large spatial scales or across scales. Here, we examined the facilitative function of shrub change across spatial scales at a desert steppe in Mongolia. These results support the hypothesis of scale-dependent changes in the balance between facilitation and competition. Therefore, transplanting shrub saplings at high- density and a larger scale could potentially improve the success of vegetation restoration in arid regions.