Berkamp, G., M. McCartney, P. Dugan, J. McNeely and M. Acreman
There are four principal categories of measures that may be incorporated into dam design or operating regime in order to respond to the environmental impacts identified through an EIA. These are: i) measures that avoid anticipated adverse effects of a dam; ii) mitigation measures that are incorporated into a new or existing dam design or operating regime in order to eliminate, offset or reduce ecosystem impacts to acceptable levels; iii) measures that compensate for existing or anticipated adverse effects that cannot be avoided or mitigated; iv) de-commissioning of the dam and restoration of the riverine ecosystem. Within this framework of avoidance, mitigation, compensation and restoration, there are a wide range of specific measures that can be taken appropriate to specific circumstances of each dam.
World Commission on Dams