Cooke, J.A. and M.S. Johnson
A restoration planning model is presented where the presence or absence of topsoil conserved on the site has been given the status of the primary practical issue for consideration in ecological restoration in mining. Examples and case studies are used to explore the important problems and solutions in the practice of restoration in the mining of metals and minerals. Even though ecological theory lacks general laws with universal applicability at the ecosystem level of organization, ecological knowledge does have high heuristic power and applicability to site- specific ecological restoration goals.