Milton, S.J., W.R.J. Dean and D.M. Richardson (
Technical and economic factors hinder effective ecological restoration, especially in developing countries. Three examples show how social policy, economic threats and opportunities, and national and international development policy are driving the restoration of degraded landscapes in southern Africa. First, new opportunities in nature tourism, together with the declining profitability of traditional ranching, have led to diversification into game farming, tourism, and hunting, all initiatives that rely on properly functioning ecosystems. Second, new environmental legislation is forcing industries, particularly mining, to restore land upon termination of their activities. Third, through South Africa’s “Working for Water” program, an elegant solution to problems of excessive water use, local residents are developing skills in clearing alien plants and restoring rangelands.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment