Heleno, R., I. Lacerda, J.A. Ramos and J. Memmott
Plant invasions are a key cause of biodiversity loss and motivate many restoration programs worldwide. We assessed restoration success of an invaded forest in the Azores using two complementary experimental designs: a before–after control–impact (BACI) design compared a restored and a control (unmanipulated) site over three years, while a control–impact (CI) design evaluated the short-term effects of restoration on restored–control replicated pairs. Both experiments provide evidence of the positive effects of weeding cascading through the food web from native plants to herbivorous insects, insect parasitoids, and birds. Two aspects that could prove critical to the outcome of restoration programs deserve further attention: most bird-dispersed seeds were alien, and weeding favored alien over native seedling growth.