Bosire, J.O., F. Dahdouh-Guebas, M. Walton, B.I. Crona, R.R. Lewis III, C. Field, J.G. Kairo and N. Koedam
Widespread mangrove degradation coupled with the increasing awareness of the importance of these coastal forests have spurred many attempts to restore mangroves but without concomitant assessment of recovery (or otherwise) at the ecosystem level in many areas. This paper reviews literature on the recovery of restored mangrove ecosystems using relevant functional indicators. The paper finally recommends various mangrove restoration pathways in a functional framework dependent on site conditions and emphasizes community involvement and ecosystem level monitoring as integral components of restoration projects.