Carpenter, S.R and R.C. Lathrop
Lake degradation results from excessive nutrient inputs, toxic substances, habitat loss, overfishing, species invasions and extirpations. The scientific basis of lake degradation is generally well understood, although each restoration project requires some level of new site-specific research. Remediation may require management actions which are difficult to implement for social or institutional reasons. Even where large-scale remediations are attempted, it is difficult to sustain scientific assessments for long enough to evaluate success. Collaborations of scientists and managers have sometimes succeeded in overcoming limitations to lake restoration, and produced important advances in our capability to restore lakes.