The Bialowieza Primeval Forest (BPF) is the only forest area in temperate Europe where forest communities have developed a natural stand structure and a natural distribution of coarse woody debris ((CWD)=standing dead trees (SDT)+down woody material (DWM)). Stand and dead wood characteristics are influenced by ancient and recent historical factors and current processes, such as fires, competitive exclusion, storms, insect outbreaks, and forest management. The aim of the present study was to relate CWD to stand characteristics in mesic deciduous forest (Tilio–Carpinetum (TC)) and riparian forest (Circaeo–Alnetum (CA)). In conclusion, special measures aimed at the restoration of ecological capacity of forest communities, including legacy retention and management for decadence, have been recommended. There is an urgent need for complementary studies to supply information necessary for s_ccessf_l adaptive management of the The Bialowieza Primeval Forest.
Forest Ecology and Management