Bucklet, M.C. and E.E. Crone
Ecological restoration is a key component of biological conservation. Nevertheless, unlike protection of existing areas, restoration changes existing land use and can therefore be more controversial. Some restoration projects negatively affect surrounding landowners, creating social constraints to restoration success. Just as negative off-site impacts (i.e., negative externalities) flow from industrial areas to natural areas, restoration projects can generate negative externalities for commercial land uses, such as agriculture. Restoration planners should give equal consideration to off-site characteristics as to on-site characteristics when choosing sites for restoration and designing projects. Efforts to control externalities can lead to off-site ecological benefits.