Mayrand, K. and M. Paquin
One finding of this report is that PES schemes may not constitute a cost-optimal instrument in all circumstances. Indeed, their success depends in great part from pre-existing conditions. PES systems work best when services are visible and beneficiaries are well organized, and when land user communities are well structured, have clear and secure property rights, strong legal frameworks, and are relatively wealthy or have access to resources.
Unisfe_ra International Centre for the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America