Klimkowska, A., R. Van Diggelen, A.P.Grootjans and W.Kotowski
Due to irreversible changes in landscape settings, hydrology, soil and trophic conditions, a full restoration to natural mires is unlikely. Yet, an improvement of the ecosystem functions and revival of biodiversity in degraded fens is possible. A restoration of semi-natural meadows is one of the alternative targets. Important for restoration efforts to succeed are a sufficient reduction of nutrient levels and preventing acidification. In general, a combination of topsoil removal and seed transfer is an effective measure for fen meadow restoration, provided that groundwater seepage can be re-established. There are also several biotic limitations to fen meadow restoration, due to limited propagule availability of target species and the legacy of the former vegetation in form of its soil seed bank and high seed production by unwanted species. Under the present environmental conditions, the re-development of fen meadows on degraded fens will result in species compositions different from those observed in the past and such restoration may require considerable time and effort.
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics