Stanturf, J.A. and P. Madsen
Throughout the boreal and temperate zones, forest restoration efforts attempt to counteract negative effects of conversion to other land use (afforestation and remediation) and disturbance and stress on existing forests (rehabilitation). Appropriate silvicultural practices can be designed for any forest restoration objective. Most common objectives include timber, wildlife habitat for game species, or aesthetics. Increasingly other objectives are considered, including carbon sequestration, biological diversity, non-game mammals and birds, endangered animals and plants, protection of water quality and aquatic resources, and recreation. Plantation forestry remains the most effective approach to restoration of forest cover to large areas, and recent trends toward more complex plantations are explored. Rehabilitation of degraded forests increasingly relies on re-establishing natural disturbance regimes and emphasizes “close-to-nature” approaches to regeneration and stand management. The objectives of this paper are to clarify concepts of forest restoration and to present examples of restoration activities in temperate and boreal forests of North America and Western Europe.