McIver, J and L. Starr
Evidence for success of passive and active restoration is presented for interior conifer forest, sagebrush steppe, and riparian ecosystems, with a focus on the Columbia River basin. Passive restoration, defined as removal of the stresses that cause degradation, may be most appropriate for higher elevation forests, low-order riparian ecosystems, and for sagebrush steppe communities that are only slightly impaired. More active approaches, in which management techniques such as planting, weeding, burning, and thinning are applied, have been successful in forests with excessive fuels and in some riparian systems, and may be necessary in highly degraded sagebrush steppe communities.
Forest Ecology and Management