Parrotta, J.A. and O.H. Knowles
We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Para_), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber trees, direct seeding with mostly native early successional tree species, and mixed native species plantings of more than 70 tree species (the current operational restoration treatment at this site). Of these, the mixed native species plantings appeared to be at least risk of arrested succession due to the dominance of a broader range of tree species of different successional stages or expected life spans. In all treatments, several locally important families of primary forest trees (Annonaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Palmae and Sapotaceae) were markedly underrepresented due to a combination of poor survival of initial plantings and limitations on seed dispersal from the surrounding primary forest.