Manning, A.D., I.J. Gordon and W.J. Ripple
Understanding the relative likely contributions of both lethal and nonlethal effects in the Scottish context will be challenging because nonlethal impacts result from an interaction between deer behaviour in response to wolf predation and particular landscapes and ecosystem features. While a full reintroduction may be far off, research must begin in the near term. There would be considerable scientific merit in establishing a large, controlled experiment (for example on an island or in a fenced area) in the Scottish Highlands to examine the relative lethal and nonlethal effects of wolves on deer and ecosystem restoration. In this paper, a long-term pathway for scientific research to provide sound ecological evidence to inform future decision-makers is proposed.