Higgs, E.S. and W.M. Roush
Significant and often indirect impacts on alpine ecosystems, the primary ecosystem under consideration in this article, threaten historical-reference conditions and the viability of some species. The impetus for restoration is similar to projects involving more direct and proximate impacts, but the issues are more complicated in remote ecosystems. Restoration efforts in remote ecosystems might do more harm than good, and the effort required for effective restoration might be greater than easily justified given the shortfall of resources for restoring more heavily impacted ecosystems.