de Ceballos, B.S.O., H. Oliveira, C.M.B.S. Meira, A. Konig, A.O. Guimara_es and J.T. de Souza
The efficiencies of a natural Typha spp wetland (Wn) formed on a river bed and its effluent treatment in a constructed wetland (Wc, subsurface horizontal flow) were investigated in northeastern Brazil (Paraiba State). The Wc system (12 tanks with stone gravel, 4.13 m2, 0.22 m3, 20 Typha spp rhizomes. m-2 each, with 38, 29, and 19 mm.d-1 hydraulic loadings, and 5, 7, and 10 days HRT) was fed daily with effluent from a Wn. Wn removal presented the highest values after Typha spp were cut during the 5th week. Removal values were (1st and 2nd periods or before and after cutting): 75% and 81% BOD5; 10-53% total phosphorus; 13%-55% ammonia; 89%-91% FC; 90-96% coliphages and bacteriophages. Wc removals increased with time with best results on 10d HRT. Removals were also higher in the 2nd period: 74%-78% BOD5; 58%-82% ammonia; 90% FC; 94-98% FS; and 92%-96% coliphages and bacteriophages. Despite the high remaining values of FC (1.4 _ 104 CFU/100 ml) and FX (4 _ 103 CFU/100 ml), the removals were satisfactory and HRT dependent, suggesting a gradual optimization of the system with time. The Wc exhibited good efficiency for improving water quality from polluted river.
Water Science and Technology