Masao, O., K. Tsutomu and N. Sayuko
In recent years, natural seaweed beds in Japan have been depleted; at the same time artificial seaweed beds have been created in order to restore ecosystem functions of coastal waters. Vigorous efforts are being made to recover and re-establish endangered seaweed beds in Japan. Fishermen have been transplanting kelp and seedlings using a spore-bag technique for many years. Regenerated seaweed beds are being developed on artificial structures at both the prefectural and national levels. Furthermore, the concept has been extended to include the creation of “marine farms” using sea walls, coastal defenses and structures as breakwaters. The recent construction of artificial Island and underwater “mounds” have also increased seaweed bed productivity and associated fishery resources.