Lake restoration involves first an understanding in a reductionist (scientific) way of the processes that drive lake ecosystems, but then of the ultimate reasons that create these proximate problems. Ultimate reasons lie in a much wider sphere of human nature and the organisation of society. Lake restoration, in its most trivial form, may be simply a form of gardening to allay the symptoms of problems and create the illusion of a solution. Lake restoration in its most profound form involves an understanding of cultural significance and the workings of human societies and forms an epitome for the solution of much greater, global problems. Only in this form does it become truly creative. Approval must come from both of the faces of Janus.