The ecology and economics of restoration: when, what, where, and how to restore ecosystems

Rohr, J.R., E.S. Bernhardt, M.W. Cadotte, W.H. Clements

Publication Date:

Restoration ecology has provided a suite of tools for accelerating the recovery of ecosystems damaged by drivers of global change. The authors review both the ecological and economic concepts developed in restoration ecology, and offer guidance on when, what, where, and how to restore ecosystems. For when to restore, they highlight the value of pursuing restoration early to prevent ecosystems from crossing tipping points and evaluating whether unassisted natural recovery is more cost-effective than active restoration. For what to restore, they encourage developing a restoration plan with stakeholders that will restore structural, compositional, and functional endpoints, and whose goal is a more resistant and resilient ecosystem. For where to restore, they emphasize developing restoration approaches that can address the impediment of rural poverty in the developing world and identifying and then balancing the ecosystems and regions in most need of restoration and those that are best positioned for restoration success.

Resource Type:
Peer-reviewed Article

Ecology and Society