Shepherd, G. (ed.)
In selecting the case studies, it was CEM’s view that the Ecosystem Approach, to be properly tested, had to be applied in multiple-use landscapes where Protected Areas formed no part, or only one among several parts, of the whole ecosystem. The approach also needed to be seen to be applicable in a variety of different kinds of biome. Thus we have here the analysis of overlapping ecosystems in an area of dry sahelian West Africa which contains no protected areas at all; of a Mekong delta wetland area with an very hard boundary and little relationship with the lands and livelihoods that lie beyond; of the developing symbiosis between a logging concession and protected areas in northern Congo-Brazzaville; of a Panamanian archipelago containing both protected and sustainable use areas, being overwhelmed by a rapid increase in tourism; and of Indonesian Papua where the forestry department is trying to use ecosystem approach ideas to adjudicate between the competing demands of conservation, logging, conversion of forest to oil-palm, and local community use of forest in highland, lowland and coastal areas.