Cox, R.D. and E.B. Allen
A 3-year experiment in southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) now dominated by exotic grasses was done to investigate the influence of both exotic grasses (mainly Bromus spp.) and exotic forbs (mainly Erodium spp.) on a restoration seeding (9 species, including grasses, forbs, and shrubs). Experimental plots were weeded to remove one, both, or neither group of exotic species and seeded at a high rate with a mix of native species. Abundance of all species varied with precipitation levels, but seeded species established best when both groups of exotic species were removed. The removal of exotic grasses resulted in an increase in exotic and native forb cover, while removal of exotic forbs led to an increase in exotic grass cover and, at least in one year, a decrease in native forb cover. Therefore, management of CSS and exotic grassland in southern California and similar areas must consider control of both exotic grasses and forbs when restoration is attempted.