Nienhuis, P.H., J.P. Bakker, A.P. Grootjans, R.D. Gulati and V.N. de Jonge
Only very recently, some 25 years ago, the tide has been turned and ecological rehabilitation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems are in full swing now, enhanced by the European Union policy to set aside agricultural land in the Netherlands in favour of the development of ‘nature’. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands is given. Starting from the conceptual basis of restoration ecology, the successes and failures of hundreds of restoration projects are given. Numerous successful projects are mentioned. In general, ecological restoration endeavours are greatly benefiting from progressive experience in the course of the years. Failures mainly occur by insufficient application of physical, chemical or ecological principles.