In focusing on issues relating to forest alteration and restoration in the interior Northwest, this paper is a modest attempt to find what Ruggiero and others describe as the “middle ground between demanding certainty and embracing opinion.” I will attempt to explore the scientific basis for what we appear to know, how we might proceed, and what we need to learn. This is neither an exhaustive review of the literature, nor an attempt to address all issues related to forest restoration. Rather, it is an attempt to review the most pertinent scientific literature, merge these findings with policy requirements, and provide recommendations on how best to proceed. Qualitative judgment will inevitably be involved, and what follows should be viewed as general principles, considerations, or rules-of-thumb.
Defenders of Wildlife