Bradshaw, A.D. In Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
The term restoration is used in many ways; however, it normally implies return to an original state. In ecological restoration, it should be thought of as applying to whole ecosystems. It must be remembered that options, such as rehabilitation or replacement, exist that may be more practicable than restoration. The components of restoration are the chemical and physical aspects of the habitat and the species themselves. Each of these may require specific treatment, but natural restorative processes should be used wherever possible; in fact, natural processes may be sufficient once the degrading influences have been removed. Because the process of restoration is progressive, the criteria of success are not easy to define. The most important point is that ecosystem development should be on an unrestricted upward path. From this, it follows that successful restoration is a serious test of our ecological understanding.
Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences