Byers, J.E., K. Cuddington, C.G. Jones, T.S. Talley, A. Hastings, J.G. Lambrinos, J.A. Crooks and W.G. Wilson
Ecosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, modifying, maintaining or destroying habitats. Despite widespread recognition of these often important effects, the ecosystem engineering concept has yet to be widely used in ecological applications. Here, we present a conceptual framework that shows how consideration of ecosystem engineers can be used to assess the likelihood of restoration of a system to a desired state, the type of changes necessary for successful restoration and how restoration efforts can be most effectively partitioned between direct human intervention and natural ecosystem engineers.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution