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Resources

15 matching resources found.

Best practices for implementing forest landscape restoration in South Asia: An international knowledge sharing workshop

Abstract:

In 2018, the Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment and Forest Department, Sri Lanka, in cooperation with the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and others, members of the Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration (GPFLR) held a knowledge-sharing workshop on best practices in implementing forest landscape restoration in South Asian countries.

The workshop aimed at:

  • Sharing and discussing lessons from current state-of-the-art scientific and technical knowledge on FLR both at global and regional scales;
  • Connecting FLR experts in South Asia and further stimulating exchanges of information, thus providing feedback into national and global FLR policy initiatives such as the Bonn Challenge process;
  • Identifying challenges of current land management and impediments to sustainable land management and ecosystem functionality across the region; and
  • Contributing to the development of a regional FLR implementation strategy in support of continuous sub-regional learning, sharing of experiences and FLR practice improvements.

This webpage houses a summary of the workshop conclusions, as well as all of the workshop presentations.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2018
STAPER categories:
  • A2: Identify/prioritize locations for meeting national contributions to Aichi Targets
  • A3: Involve all relevant stakeholders
  • A5: Assess institutional, policy, and legal frameworks & identify financial/technical resources
  • B6: Review, improve or establish targets, policies and strategies for ecosystem restoration
  • B10: Promote and support capacity-building, training, and technology transfer
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

Ecological Restoration for Protected Areas: Principles, Guidelines and Best Practice

Abstract:

IUCN, SER and partners published Ecological Restoration for Protected Areas: Principles, Guidelines and Best Practices, which provides guidance for terrestrial, marine, and freshwater protected area managers at both system and site levels on the restoration of natural and associated values of protected areas.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
This comprehensive guidance can assist with identifying appropriate restoration measures (C1), developing restoration plans (C3), developing tasks, schedules and budgets (C4), and project implementation (C5). It is also relevant regarding activities in Group D, monitoring.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2012
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management

Implementing forest landscape restoration: A practitioner’s guide

Abstract:

Recognizing the challenge of implementing high-level FLR pledges, and realizing that obtaining results on the ground will confront many context-specific questions, a team of scientists from relevant IUFRO units has prepared this guide. This guide is intended to be a training resource for FLR facilitators who have a broad approach to land management. This guide addresses FLR implementation as a whole but with a view toward climate change mitigation and adaptation; only if the landscape is changing and FLR is successful will climate benefits materialise.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
This publication has broad applicability to Groups of activities C and D with regard to projects implemented within the FLR framework.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2017
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

International standards for the practice of ecological restoration, 1st edition (Archived – outdated)

Abstract:

*** NOTE: This document, International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration, has been superseded by the 2nd edition. ***

The first edition includes Principles and Key Concepts (hereafter, the Standards), provides standards to guide practitioners, operational personnel, planners, managers, regulators and funding agencies involved in restoring degraded ecosystems anywhere in the world – whether terrestrial, freshwater, coastal or marine. It places ecological restoration into a global context, including its role in conserving biodiversity and improving human wellbeing. The key principles and concepts underpinning the Standards further develop definitions, principles and concepts contained in the SER Primer (www.ser.org), other SER foundation documents (including Keenleyside et al. 2012), and the SER Australasia-developed standards (McDonald et al. 2016). The Standards expand these conceptual frameworks to clarify the degree of recovery represented by ‘ecological restoration’ in times of global changes including anthropogenic climate change and other rapid environmental changes.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2016
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management

International standards for the practice of ecological restoration, 2nd edition

Abstract:

The second edition of the International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration was released on September 27, 2019, in Cape Town, South Africa at SER’s 8th World Conference on Ecological Restoration. This groundbreaking publication provides updated and expanded guidance on the practice of ecological restoration, clarifies the breadth of ecological restoration and allied environmental repair activities, and includes ideas and input from a diverse international group of restoration scientists and practitioners.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
The Standards provide information on the planning, implementation, monitoring and maintenance of ecological restoration projects in all types of ecosystems worldwide, providing key guidance for Groups of activities C and D. This resource stresses the importance of early, genuine and active engagement with stakeholders and emphasizes the use of appropriate native species in line with activity C1. Guidance can also be applied to allied restorative activities, including a wide array of nature-based solutions, in line with C2. Section 3 outlines a series of steps used to develop clear objectives and tasks for each step of a plan, in line with activities, C3 and C4. An appendix provides information on the selection of seeds and other propagules in the context of fragmentation and climate change, helpful for activity C2. The Standards also contain guidance for the monitoring of restoration projects. This guidance includes a tiered system from 1 to 5 stars to evaluate progress of a restoration project (D1) along a trajectory toward a reference model by assessing six key ecological attributes: species composition, structural diversity, ecosystem function, external exchanges, absence of threats, and physical conditions. An ‘ecological recovery wheel’, available online and as an Android app provides a framework to communicate restoration progress (D3). The SER Standards also provide a sample 'Social Benefits Wheel' to help assess and communicate the delivery of ecosystem services by restoration projects, in line with activities D1 and D3.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2019
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

ITTO Guidelines for the Restoration, Management and Rehabilitation of Degraded and Secondary Tropical Forests

Abstract:

These guidelines provide a powerful introduction to the issues confronting the policy-makers, forest practitioners, extension workers and others who want to restore and manage degraded or secondary forests. They stress that the policy, legal and social conditions in and outside the forest must be analyzed and addressed before restoration, management and rehabilitation activities are decided on. They point out that many people have a stake in the forest and any restoration, management or rehabilitation efforts must be made with their full participation. Land tenure issues must be resolved, and transparent mechanisms for sorting out conflicts over property and access rights must be established. Silvicultural techniques that can be understood and implemented by owners of small areas of forest need to be developed.

Resource Type:White Paper
Publication Date: 2002
STAPER categories:
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets

Low-tech process based restoration of riverscapes design manual

Abstract:

The purpose of this design manual is to provide restoration practitioners with guidelines for implementing a subset of low-tech tools—namely beaver dam analogues (BDAs) and post-assisted log structures (PALS)—for initiating process-based restoration in structurally-starved riverscapes. While the concept of process-based restoration in riverscapes has been advocated for at least two decades, details and specific examples on how to implement it remain sparse. Here, we describe ‘low-tech process-based restoration’ (LT-PBR) as a practice of using simple, low unit-cost, structural additions (e.g. wood and beaver dams) to riverscapes to mimic functions and initiate specific processes. Hallmarks of this approach include:

  • An explicit focus on the processes that a low-tech restoration intervention is meant to promote
  • A conscious effort to use cost-effective, low-tech treatments (e.g. hand-built, natural materials, non-engineered, short-term design life-spans) because of the need to efficiently scale-up application.
  • ‘Letting the system do the work’ which defers critical decision making to riverscapes and nature’s ecosystem engineers
Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2019
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures

Minnesota Guide for Stream Connectivity and Aquatic Organism Passage Through Culverts

Abstract:

This guide assists Minnesota culvert designers in identifying, selecting, and implementing appropriate designs for maintaining aquatic organism passage (AOP) and stream connectivity at road-stream intersections. It was synthesized from existing literature and culvert design documents, a survey of practitioners, research, and input from experts. Culvert designs often disrupt AOP, degrading stream health. Best practices for AOP at culverts were developed and summarized as follows:  1.) Design the culvert to be similar to the stream channel (reference reach), 2. Provide a continuous sediment bed with roughness similar to the channel 3.) Design for public safety, longevity, and resilience.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2019
STAPER categories:
  • A1: Assess degraded ecosystems
  • A3: Involve all relevant stakeholders
  • A5: Assess institutional, policy, and legal frameworks & identify financial/technical resources
  • A6: Identify options to reduce the drivers biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation
  • B3: Promote and strengthen formal and informal education systems
  • B6: Review, improve or establish targets, policies and strategies for ecosystem restoration
  • B10: Promote and support capacity-building, training, and technology transfer
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

Moving to Industrial-Scale Coral Habitat Restoration

Abstract:

Jesper Elzinga, Van Oord Dredging and Marine Contractors, talks on ‘The Recovery of Reefs Using Industrial Techniques for Slick Harvesting and Release (RECRUIT)’ followed by Joaquim Garrabou, Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona on ‘Lessons Learned from Coral Restoration in Shallow and Deep Environments’. There is potential to assist the recovery of impacted coral habitats through marine ecosystem restoration, but can it be achieved at a meaningful scale? This webinar addressed some of the methods that might be used in restoration of coral habitats and their applicability at larger scales.

Resource Type:Webinar
Publication Date: 2020
STAPER categories:
  • A1: Assess degraded ecosystems
  • A2: Identify/prioritize locations for meeting national contributions to Aichi Targets
  • A3: Involve all relevant stakeholders
  • A4: Assess the costs/benefits of ecosystem restoration
  • A5: Assess institutional, policy, and legal frameworks & identify financial/technical resources
  • A6: Identify options to reduce the drivers biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation
  • B4: Review, improve or establish terrestrial and marine spatial planning processes
  • B6: Review, improve or establish targets, policies and strategies for ecosystem restoration
  • B9: Develop plans for resource mobilization
  • B10: Promote and support capacity-building, training, and technology transfer
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

Protocol Development Tool (PDT) for seed encrusting and pelleting

Abstract:

Seed encrusting and pelleting are seed coating technologies that increase seed size and weight, improving handling, consistency in seed delivery and providing active ingredients for seed protection and enhancement. Though widely used for crop and vegetable seeds, with an estimated value of more than a billion dollars per annum globally, the know-how and methodologies are rarely disclosed by the commercial seed industry sector. As a result, it is difficult to reproduce specific seed coatings for research and comparative evaluation. For small seed producers, particularly the emerging native seed sector, seed enhancement technologies are either unavailable or rarely adopted due to their inaccessibility. Here, we present the first fully disclosed Protocol Development Tool (PDT) for seed pelleting and encrusting. The PDT is customisable, applicable to a wide range of agricultural, horticultural and restoration purposes, and adaptable to suit a variety of seeds and coating materials. The PDT will allow researchers and seed suppliers to test and develop project-specific pelleting and encrusting methods within a standardised and replicable framework.

Resource Type:Peer-reviewed Article
Publication Date: 2018
STAPER categories:
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures

Roadside revegetation: An integrated approach to establishing native plants and pollinator habitat

Abstract:

The roadsides of the United States play an important role in the conservation of declining wild pollinators and in supporting the health of managed pollinators. The An Integrated Approach to Establishing Native Plants and Pollinator Habitat program provides current best practices for planning, designing, and implementing a revegetation project that will also create habitat for pollinators. The web resource offers a comprehensive Roadside Revegetation Report detailing the complete roadside revegetation process, from project initiation, through monitoring and management. It is also home to the Ecoregional Revegetation Application online tool and a Roadside Revegetation online library.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: Ongoing
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management

Science Base and Tools for Evaluating Stream Engineering, Management, and Restoration Proposals

Abstract:

Stream management activities, even well-intentioned restoration efforts, have all too often degraded aquatic ecosystems. Site- and reach-scale habitat improvement projects have become the default solution to many habitat deficiencies and constraints, and are often planned and implemented without proper consideration of their landscape context, process drivers, or geomorphic fitness. Failure to recognize these broader scale concerns may lead to poor project selection and increased potential for project failure. To address these issues, we developed a suite of River Restoration Analysis Tool (RiverRAT) resources to guide more efficient, consistent, and comprehensive reviews of stream management and restoration proposals. Resources help determine the depth of review required, assure that a project proposal is complete, and guide reviewers through a thorough and scientifically sound project review. The RiverRAT Science Document and its Appendices provide a comprehensive synthesis of science behind stream management and restoration project development.
The ultimate, long-term goals of RiverRAT include:
• Enabling consistent, comprehensive, transparent, and documented project reviews;
• facilitating improved project planning and design;
• encouraging projects that are attuned to their watershed and geomorphic context; and
• improving the science and technology of stream restoration and management.

Resource Type:Technical Document
Publication Date: 2011
STAPER categories:
  • B4: Review, improve or establish terrestrial and marine spatial planning processes
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management

SER Certified Ecological Restoration Practitioner (CERP) Program

Abstract:

SER’s Certified Ecological Restoration Practitioner (CERP) Program encourages a high professional standard for those who are designing, implementing, overseeing, and monitoring restoration projects throughout the world.

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
By developing criteria for restoration practitioners to be approved for CERP, and continuing education requirements for maintenance or certification, the CERP program contributes to activity B10. Certified practitioners, in turn, can contribute to activities C1, C3, C4, and C5 regarding restoration planning and implementation, and activities D1, D2, and D3 regarding project monitoring.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: Ongoing
STAPER categories:
  • B10: Promote and support capacity-building, training, and technology transfer
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

Standards for Ecologically Successful River Restoration

Abstract:

Billions of dollars are currently spent restoring streams and rivers, yet to date there are no agreed upon standards for what constitutes ecologically beneficial stream and river restoration. We propose five criteria that must be met for a river restoration project to be considered ecologically successful. It is critical that the broad restoration community, including funding agencies, practitioners and citizen restoration groups, adopt criteria for defining and assessing ecological success in restoration. Standards are needed because progress in the science and practice of river restoration has been hampered by the lack of agreed upon criteria for judging ecological success. Without well-accepted criteria that are ultimately supported by funding and implementing agencies, there is little incentive for practitioners to assess and report restoration outcomes. Improving methods and weighing the ecological benefits of various restoration approaches require organized national-level reporting systems.

Resource Type:Peer-reviewed Article
Publication Date: 2005
STAPER categories:
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets

The Nature Conservancy Water Funds Toolbox

Abstract:

Water Funds are organizations that take collective action to help address water insecurity. They design and enhance financial and governance mechanisms which unite public, private and civil society stakeholders around a common goal to contribute to water security through nature-based solutions and sustainable watershed management. This toolbox has been developed by Water Funds experts to help leaders succeed in developing Water Funds. This web-based toolbox has a variety of resources including a step-by-step guide, a curriculum, and access to a global community of Water Funds.

Resource Type:Web-based Resource
Publication Date: 2019
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures

Projects

5 matching projects found.

Brazil: Save the Good Water of Xingu – Y Ikatu Xingu

Country: Brazil

Abstract: Xingu is a famous name due to to the cultural richness of its original inhabitants where the Amazon forest and Cerrado merge in Brazil. There dwell 24 indigenous groups who live, drink, bathe and fish in Xingu river and tributaries. Pollution, silting and deregulation of water flow due to deforestation around Indigenous Territories and conversion to agricultural use, threaten the survival of this people and the sustainability of modern agriculture itself in the region (Figure 1). The Campaign...
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures

Ecohydrological restoration of Burns Bog, British Columbia, Canada

Country: Canada

Abstract: Burns Bog is a 3,000 ha raised bog located in southwest British Columbia, Canada. Beginning in the 1930s, the bog underwent 50 years of industrial peat extraction, resulting in an extensive network of drainage ditches that lowered the water table and allowed the establishment of trees and other non-bog plant species. Much of the original margin of the bog has been converted to other land uses, such as industrial operations and agriculture. In 2004, Burns Bog was purchased by four levels of...
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management

Healthy Forest, Healthy Wildlife: The Wilds, Cumberland, Ohio

Country: United States of America

Abstract: The Wilds is a non-profit center dedicated to environmental conservation through science, education, and visitor personal experience. While The Wilds is most well-known for its exotic animals, most of The Wilds' land is actually devoted to native conservation and restoration after agriculture and surface mining for coal in the late 20th century removed most of the region's forests. Sections mined before 1976 tended to be reclaimed as forest and often have poorly developed soils with...
STAPER categories:
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan

Renature Monchique

Country: Portugal

Abstract: The primary objective of this partner-based project is to begin a process that assists private landowners within the municipal district of Monchique, Algarve Region, Portugal, affected by the wildfire of 2018. As most landowners have small-holdings, the project-based process required to access financial support is onerous and in many instances linked to reforestation legislation. The one-year project is funded by the Ryanair passengers Carbon Offset Fund. Based on ecological restoration...

Relevance for the Short Term Action Plan for Ecosystem Restoration:
Recover fire-damaged and degraded sites

STAPER categories:
  • A1: Assess degraded ecosystems
  • A2: Identify/prioritize locations for meeting national contributions to Aichi Targets
  • A3: Involve all relevant stakeholders
  • A4: Assess the costs/benefits of ecosystem restoration
  • A5: Assess institutional, policy, and legal frameworks & identify financial/technical resources
  • A6: Identify options to reduce the drivers biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation
  • B1: Review, improve or establish legal, policy and financial frameworks for restoration
  • B4: Review, improve or establish terrestrial and marine spatial planning processes
  • B5: Consider the need for safeguard measures
  • B6: Review, improve or establish targets, policies and strategies for ecosystem restoration
  • B8: Promote economic and financial incentives
  • B10: Promote and support capacity-building, training, and technology transfer
  • C1: Identify appropriate measures for conducting ecosystem restoration
  • C2: Consider how restoration can support sustainability of agriculture/production
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures
  • D1: Assess the efficacy and effects of implementing the ecosystem restoration plan
  • D2: Adjust plans, expectations, procedures, and monitoring through adaptive management
  • D3: Share lessons learned from planning, financing, implementing and monitoring ecosystem restoration plans

South Korea: Restoration of the Cheonggyecheon River in Downtown Seoul

Country: Korea

Abstract: Since the 1970s, the Cheonggyecheon River in downtown Seoul, South Korea was covered by a busy, multi-lane roadway and elevated highway. An engineering survey conducted in 2000 revealed structural weaknesses in these roads and indicated a need for a costly renovation project. In lieu of investing in this congested traffic infrastructure, the Seoul City Government opted to demolish the roads and restore flow to the river in order to improve the environmental and aesthetic state of the downtown...
STAPER categories:
  • C3: Develop ecosystem restoration plans with clear/measurable objectives and goals  
  • C4: Develop explicit implementation tasks, schedules, and budgets
  • C5: Implement the measures